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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
 
 
 
 
 

Removal of short-term isolation stress differentially influences prepulse inhibition in APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats.

Epidemiological studies have reported that the risk of developing schizophrenia increases with the number of genes one shares with patients suffering from schizophrenia [Gottesman Schizophrenia Genesis, New York: Freeman; 1991]. In addition, stressful life events are known to increase the risk of developing schizophrenia [Schizophr Res 30 (1998) 251] resulting in the stress hypothesis of schizophrenia. Remarkably, stress increases the release of dopamine and noradrenaline in the nucleus accumbens [Brain Res 554 (1991) 217], which links the stress hypothesis with the known dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia. Additionally an increased dopamine transmission in the nucleus accumbens (Nacc) is known to disturb prepulse inhibition (ppi) [Pharmacol Biochem Behav 49 (1994) 155], a phenomenon observed in, among others, schizophrenics [Arch Gen Psychiatry 47 (1990) 181]. Some years ago we have genetically selected two rat-lines which are marked by a high (APO-SUS) and by a low (APO-UNSUS) apomorphine susceptibility. Similar to schizophrenics the APO-SUS rat-line shows a reduced ppi [J Neurosci 15 (1995) 7604]. However, these data were obtained after a period of mild stress, namely a 24-h period of social isolation. Mild stress changes the line specific differences of APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats. The stress pushes the APO-SUS rat in the direction of an APO-UNSUS and vice versa, especially as far as it concerns the dopamine and noradrenaline activity in the nucleus accumbens [Cools AR, van-den Bos R, Ellenbroek BA, Gaiting function of noradrenaline in the ventral striatum: its role in behavioural responses to environmental and pharmacological challenges. In: Willner P, Scheel-Kruger J, editors. The mesolimbic dopamine system: from motivation to action. New York: Wiley; 1991 [Chapter 6]; Cools AR, Rots NY, De-Kloet ER, Apomorphine-susceptible and apomorphine-unsusceptible Wistar rats: a new tool in the search for the function of striatum in switching behavioural strategies. In: Pea G (Ed.), The basal ganglia IV, New York: Plenum Press; 1994; Brain Res Bull 24 (1990) 49; Behav Neurosci 108 (1994) 1107]. Therefore, in the present paper we investigated the ppi response in non-stressed, i.e. non-isolated APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats. In agreement with this hypothesis, we found that removal of the stress led to an increase of ppi in the APO-SUS, but a decrease in the APO-UNSUS. These data clearly shows that the ppi is stress-dependent in APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats. It is suggested that the differential stress-induced change in the dopaminergic and the noradrenergic system influences the reaction of APO-SUS and APO-UNSUS rats on ppi.[1]

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