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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Induction of intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporters by a phytosterol-derived liver X receptor agonist.

The nuclear receptors liver X receptor (LXR) alpha and LXRbeta serve as oxysterol receptors and regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid metabolism. LXR activation induces the expression of ATP- binding cassette ( ABC) transporters, such as ABCG5 and ABCG8, which inhibit intestinal absorption of cholesterol and phytosterols. Although several synthetic LXR agonists have been generated, these compounds have limited clinical application, because they cause hypertriglycemia by inducing the expression of lipogenic genes in the liver. We synthesized derivatives of phytosterols and found some of them to act as LXR agonists. Among them, YT-32 [(22E)-ergost-22-ene-1alpha,3beta-diol], which is related to ergosterol and brassicasterol, is the most potent LXR agonist. YT-32 directly bound to LXRalpha and LXRbeta and induced the interaction of LXRalpha with cofactors, such as steroid receptor coactivator-1, as effectively as the natural ligands, 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol and 24(S),25-epoxycholesterol. Although the nonsteroidal synthetic LXR agonist T0901317 induced the expression of intestinal ABC transporters and liver lipogenic genes, oral administration of YT-32 selectively activated intestinal ABC transporters in mice. Unlike T0901317 treatment, YT-32 inhibited intestinal cholesterol absorption without increasing plasma triglyceride levels. The phytosterol-derived LXR agonist YT-32 might selectively modulate intestinal cholesterol metabolism.[1]


  1. Induction of intestinal ATP-binding cassette transporters by a phytosterol-derived liver X receptor agonist. Kaneko, E., Matsuda, M., Yamada, Y., Tachibana, Y., Shimomura, I., Makishima, M. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
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