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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A comparison of the abilities of nitrobenzylthioinosine, dilazep, and dipyridamole to protect human hematopoietic cells from 7-deazaadenosine (tubercidin).

Nitrobenzylthioinosine, dilazep, and dipyridamole are potent inhibitors of equilibrative transport of nucleosides that may have pharmacological applications in modulating the therapeutic index of nucleoside antimetabolites used in cancer chemotherapy. We have compared the relative abilities of these inhibitors to reduce the toxicity of in vitro exposures to tubercidin against clonogenic progenitor cells of normal human bone marrow (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-GM) and of two leukemic human cell lines (HL-60/C1, CCRF-CEM) that differ in their expression of transporter subtypes. Short (1-h) exposures to 1 microM tubercidin alone inhibited colony formation (a) of normal human hematopoietic progenitors (CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, CFU-GM) by 100%, and (b) of HL-60/ C1 and CCRF-CEM cells by > 90%. Pretreatment (30 min) with nitrobenzylthioinosine, dilazep, or dipyridamole followed by simultaneous treatment (1 h) with these transport inhibitors during tubercidin exposures reduced toxicity against hematopoietic progenitors and cell lines. Greater reductions of toxicity were consistently seen with bone marrow progenitors and CCRF-CEM cells than with HL-60/ C1 cells. For CFU-GEMM, BFU-E, and CFU-GM cells, reductions in tubercidin toxicity of 50-100% were achieved at these concentrations: > or = 0.1 microM (nitrobenzylthioinosine); > or = 0.1 microM (dilazep); and > or = 3.0 microM (dipyridamole). Pretreatment (30 min) followed by simultaneous treatment (1 h) with any of the transport inhibitors (> or = 0.1 microM) and 0.1 microM [3H]-tubercidin blocked the uptake of radioactivity completely in CCRF-CEM cells and only partially in HL-60/C1 cells. These effects, which were consistent with the nucleoside transport phenotypes of CCRF-CEM cells (inhibitor-sensitive) and HL-60/ C1 cells (inhibitor-sensitive and inhibitor-resistant), suggested that protection was due to the inhibition of tubercidin uptake via equilibrative nucleoside transport system(s). Light-density mononuclear cells from human bone marrow, of which the clonogenic progenitors represented only a minor (< 0.01%) subpopulation, possessed far fewer nitrobenzylthioinosine-binding sites (2 x 10(4) sites/cell, Kd = 0.7 nM) than either HL-60/ C1 cells (1.7 x 10(5) sites/cell, Kd = 0.9 nM) or CCRF-CEM cells (3.3 x 10(5) sites/cell, Kd = 0.5 nM). Initial rates of uptake of 1 microM [3H]adenosine (0-6 s, 20 degrees C) by human bone marrow mononuclear cells were reduced partially by 0.1 microM inhibitor (nitrobenzylthioinosine > dipyridamole > dilazep) and completely by 10 microM inhibitor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)[1]


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