The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Serine proteases mediate apoptosis-like cell death and phagocytosis under caspase-inhibiting conditions.

Effective execution of apoptosis requires the activation of caspases. However, in many cases, broad-range caspase inhibitors such as Z-VAD.fmk do not inhibit cell death because death signaling continues via basal caspase activities or caspase-independent processes. Although death mediators acting under caspase-inhibiting conditions have been identified, it remains unknown whether they trigger a physiologically relevant cell death that shows typical signs of apoptosis, including phosphatidylserine (PS) exposure and the removal of apoptotic cells by phagocytosis. Here we show that cells treated with ER stress drugs or deprived of IL-3 still show hallmarks of apoptosis such as cell shrinkage, membrane blebbing, mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, PS exposure and phagocytosis in the presence of Z-VAD.fmk. Cotreatment of the stressed cells with Z-VAD.fmk and the serine protease inhibitor Pefabloc (AEBSF) inhibited all these events, indicating that serine proteases mediated the apoptosis-like cell death and phagocytosis under these conditions. The serine proteases were found to act upstream of an increase in mitochondrial membrane permeability as opposed to the serine protease Omi/HtrA2 which is released from mitochondria at a later stage. Thus, despite caspase inhibition or basal caspase activities, cells can still be phagocytosed and killed in an apoptosis-like fashion by a serine protease-mediated mechanism that damages the mitochondrial membrane.[1]


  1. Serine proteases mediate apoptosis-like cell death and phagocytosis under caspase-inhibiting conditions. Egger, L., Schneider, J., Rhême, C., Tapernoux, M., Häcki, J., Borner, C. Cell Death Differ. (2003) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities