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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Impact of O-glycosylation on the function of human intestinal lactase-phlorizin hydrolase. Characterization of glycoforms varying in enzyme activity and localization of O-glycoside addition.

Lactase-phlorizin hydrolase ( LPH) is an integral intestinal brush border membrane glycoprotein responsible for the hydrolysis of lactose, the primary carbohydrate in mammalian milk. To assess the role of N- and O-glycosylation on the function of LPH, lectin-binding experiments combined with enzymatic and chemical deglycosylation of purified LPH molecules were performed. These investigations provided evidence for the existence of two forms of brush border LPH, an N-glycosylated molecule (LPHN) and an N- and O-glycosylated molecule (LPHN/O). These two forms could be discriminated on the basis of (i) their binding capacity to Helix pomatia lectin, which has high specificity toward O-linked oligosaccharides, and (ii) their deglycosylation patterns with endo-beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase F/GF, O-glycanase, and trifluoromethanesulfonic acid. Interestingly, both forms have identical Km values (approximately 14 mM) when assayed with lactose, but hydrolyze this substrate at different rates. Thus, the N- and O-glycosylated form exhibits almost a 4-fold higher Vmax than that of the N-glycosylated enzyme (3.28 nM/min versus 0.90 nM/min) and is therefore enzymatically more active than the latter. Sequential affinity chromatography of glycopeptides derived from [3H]mannose-labeled LPHN and LPHN/O on lectin columns revealed similar patterns of N-linked glycosylation of both forms indicating that the presence of O-linked oligosaccharides did not affect or alter the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides. O-Linked glycosylation of LPH appears to occur in the Golgi apparatus, since the earliest detectable forms of LPH, the mannose-rich precursor (pro- LPH) is not O-glycosylated. In view of the fact that differentiation of intestinal crypt cells to mature epithelial cells is accompanied by significant phenotypical, morphological, and structural alterations, including changes in the levels of several Golgi glycosyl, -sialyl, galactosyl-, and N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferases, and since O-glycosylation is a Golgi event, we suggest that the generation of LPHN and LPHN/O is strongly linked to differentiation of intestinal cells. Finally, the variations in the enzymatic activity of the two forms propose a role for O-glycosylation in posttranslational regulation of LPH activity.[1]


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