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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Adenosine A3 receptor activation modulates the capillary endothelial glycocalyx.

The endothelial glycocalyx is a dynamic extracellular matrix composed of cell surface proteoglycans, glycoproteins, and adsorbed serum proteins that has been implicated in the regulation and modulation of capillary tube hematocrit, permeability, and hemostasis. High tissue adenosine levels have been shown to adversely affect microvascular function and tissue survival after an ischemic episode, and previous work in this laboratory has shown that adenosine causes arteriolar constriction and degranulation of mast cells via the A3 receptor (A3AR). We hypothesized that adenosine exerts at least part of its effect through modification of the glycocalyx via the A3AR. We used an in vivo cremaster model (hamster and mouse) in which circulating plasma was labeled with a 70-kDa FITC-dextran, and the capillaries were examined before and after superfusion with varying concentrations of adenosine (or other vasoactive molecules). Measurements of the dextran exclusion from an endothelial cell surface layer and red cell separation from the endothelial cell surface were made for up to 30 minutes. Our data indicate that adenosine causes a rapid and profound decrease in the ability of the glycocalyx to exclude dextran but only affects red blood cell exclusion at pharmacological levels. Knockout mice deficient in the A3AR were completely protected from glycocalyx changes attributable to adenosine. These data show a potential link between a known vasoactive tissue metabolite, adenosine, and regulation of the glycocalyx, which may be important during (patho)physiological changes in microvascular function during inflammatory insults.[1]


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