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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Bacterial arthritis.

The 1991 literature on septic arthritis included a concise review of adult septic arthritis, examples of pseudoseptic arthritis, and two interesting animal studies. One animal study examined the induction of acute synovitis by the intra-articular injection of bacterial endotoxin and the cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and interleukin-1 beta; and the other studied the effects of early and delayed synovectomy in the management of septic arthritis. The predispositions to septic arthritis can be divided into local joint abnormalities, systemic factors, or both. Examples of the local joint abnormalities include osteoarthritis of the hip and apatite-associated arthropathy. Septic arthritis in a patient with rheumatoid arthritis, in a patient with diabetes mellitus and hip arthropathy associated with hemochromatosis, or in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and hemophilic arthropathy are examples of how systemic predisposition is coupled with local joint pathology to increase the vulnerability of the host to joint infection. Other examples of systemic disease that predispose to septic arthritis are systemic lupus erythematosus, hypogammaglobulinemia, and human immunodeficiency virus infection, as well as intravenous drug abuse. Unusual microorganisms causing septic arthritis in the adult include Achromobacter xylosoxidans, Moraxella catarrhalis, meningococci, and diphtheroids. Uncommon pathogenesis is represented by a case of intra-articular inoculation of Mycobacterium gastri into the small joint of the hand and a case of mixed bacterial infection of the hip resulting from an extension of a contiguous pelvic infection associated with trauma. Two cases of immune complex glomerulonephritis illustrate the extra-articular complications of septic arthritis: one due to group G streptococcus and the other due to pneumococcus. Finally, septic bursitis is reviewed from the community practice perspective.[1]


  1. Bacterial arthritis. Ho, G. Current opinion in rheumatology. (1992) [Pubmed]
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