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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

A novel and potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitor, FR247304 (5-chloro-2-[3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone), attenuates neuronal damage in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia.

The activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 ( PARP-1) after exposure to nitric oxide or oxygen-free radicals can lead to cell injury via severe, irreversible depletion of NAD. Genetic deletion or pharmacological inhibition of PARP-1 attenuates brain injury after focal ischemia and neurotoxicity in several neurodegenerative models in animals. FR247304 (5-chloro-2-[3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone) is a novel PARP-1 inhibitor that has recently been identified through structure-based drug design. In an enzyme kinetic analysis, FR247304 exhibits potent and competitive inhibition of PARP-1 activity, with a K(i) value of 35 nM. Here, we show that prevention of PARP activation by FR247304 treatment protects against both reactive oxygen species-induced PC12 cell injury in vitro and ischemic brain injury in vivo. In cell death model, treatment with FR247304 (10(-8)-10(-5) M) significantly reduced NAD depletion by PARP-1 inhibition and attenuated cell death after hydrogen peroxide (100 microM) exposure. After 90 min of middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats, poly(ADP-ribosy)lation and NAD depletion were markedly increased in the cortex and striatum from 1 h after reperfusion. The increased poly(ADP-ribose) immunoreactivity and NAD depletion were attenuated by FR247304 (32 mg/kg i.p.) treatment, and FR247304 significantly decreased ischemic brain damage measured at 24 h after reperfusion. Whereas other PARP inhibitors such as 3-aminobenzamide and PJ34 [N-(6-oxo-5,6-dihydro-phenanthridin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethylactamide] showed similar neuroprotective actions, they were less potent in in vitro assays and less efficacious in an in vivo model compared with FR247304. These results indicate that the novel PARP-1 inhibitor FR247304 exerts its neuroprotective efficacy in in vitro and in vivo experimental models of cerebral ischemia via potent PARP-1 inhibition and also suggest that FR247304 or its derivatives could be attractive therapeutic candidates for stroke and neurodegenerative disease.[1]


  1. A novel and potent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 inhibitor, FR247304 (5-chloro-2-[3-(4-phenyl-3,6-dihydro-1(2H)-pyridinyl)propyl]-4(3H)-quinazolinone), attenuates neuronal damage in in vitro and in vivo models of cerebral ischemia. Iwashita, A., Tojo, N., Matsuura, S., Yamazaki, S., Kamijo, K., Ishida, J., Yamamoto, H., Hattori, K., Matsuoka, N., Mutoh, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (2004) [Pubmed]
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