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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Anti-inflammatory effects of moxifloxacin on activated human monocytic cells: inhibition of NF-kappaB and mitogen-activated protein kinase activation and of synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines.

We previously showed that moxifloxacin (MXF) exerts protective anti-inflammatory effects in immunosuppressed mice infected with Candida albicans by inhibiting interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor alpha ( TNF-alpha) production in the lung. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated inhibition of nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB translocation in lung epithelium and macrophages in MXF-treated mice. In the present study we investigated the effects of MXF on the production of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta) by activated human peripheral blood monocytes and THP-1 cells and analyzed the effects of the drug on the major signal transduction pathways associated with inflammation: NF-kappaB and the mitogen- activated protein kinases ERK and c-Jun N-terminal kinase ( JNK). The levels of IL-8, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta secretion rose 20- and 6.7-fold in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated monocytes and THP-1 cells, respectively. MXF (5 to 20 microg/ml) significantly inhibited cytokine production by 14 to 80% and 15 to 73% in monocytes and THP-1 cells, respectively. In THP-1 cells, the level of NF-kappaB nuclear translocation increased fourfold following stimulation with LPS-phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and this was inhibited (38%) by 10 microg of MXF per ml. We then assayed the degradation of inhibitor (I)-kappaB by Western blotting. LPS-PMA induced degradation of I-kappaB by 73%, while addition of MXF (5 microg/ml) inhibited I-kappaB degradation by 49%. Activation of ERK1/2 and the 46-kDa p- JNK protein was enhanced by LPS and LPS-PMA and was significantly inhibited by MXF (54 and 42%, respectively, with MXF at 10 microg/ml). We conclude that MXF suppresses the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines in human monocytes and THP-1 cells and that it exerts its anti-inflammatory effects in THP-1 cells by inhibiting NF-kappaB, ERK, and JNK activation. Its anti-inflammatory properties should be further assessed in clinical settings.[1]


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