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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Chromosomes, genes, and development of testicular germ cell tumors.

A literature review found 265 articles on testicular germ cell tumors (TGCTs) detailing the copy number of chromosomal regions and expression of 245 genes. An initial precursor stage, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (IGCN), is characterized by triploidization and an upregulation of KIT, ALPP, CCDN2, and ZNF354A, and a downregulation of CDKN2D. TGCT regularly have a series of chromosomal aberrations: a decrease in copy number at 4q21 approximately qter and 5q14 approximately qter; an increase at 7p21 approximately pter, 7q21 approximately q33, and 8q12 approximately q23 (especially high increase in seminoma); a decrease at 11p11 approximately p15 and 11q14 approximately q24; an increase at 12p11 approximately pter; a decrease at 13q14 approximately q31; an increase of 17q11 approximately q21 (only for nonseminoma); a decrease of 18q12 approximately qter; and an increase at 21q21 approximately qter, 22q11 approximately qter (only for seminoma), and Xq. Macroscopically overt TGCT is associated with a characteristic series of abnormalities in the retinoblastoma pathway including upregulation of cyclin D2 and p27 and downregulation of RB1 and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors p16, p18, p19, and p21. TGCT thus has a synergistic pattern in gene expressions of the retinoblastoma pathway that is rare in other malignancies.[1]


  1. Chromosomes, genes, and development of testicular germ cell tumors. von Eyben, F.E. Cancer Genet. Cytogenet. (2004) [Pubmed]
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