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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Involvement of multiple P2Y receptors and signaling pathways in the action of adenine nucleotides diphosphates on human monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

Adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP), which is released from necrotic cells, induces a semimaturation state of dendritic cells (DC), characterized by the up-regulation of costimulatory molecules and the inhibition of proinflammatory cytokines. This action is mediated by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and involves the P2Y11 receptor. As DC express the ecto-enzyme CD39, which converts ATP into adenosine 5'-diphosphate (ADP), the effects of adenine nucleotides diphosphates on molecular signaling [intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), cAMP, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)], costimulatory molecule expression (CD83), and cytokine production [interleukin (IL)-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), IL-10] were investigated in human monocyte-derived DC. ADP, 2-methylthio-ADP, and ADPbetaS had no effect on cAMP, increased [Ca2+]i, and stimulated the phosphorylation of ERK1. The effect on ERK1 was inhibited by AR-C69931MX, a P2Y12 and P2Y13 antagonist. On the contrary the effect on [Ca2+]i was neither inhibited by AR-C69931MX or by the P2Y1 antagonist MRS-2179. Both effects were inhibited by pertussis toxin. ADPbetaS alone was less potent for up-regulation of CD83 than ATPgammaS and did not increase the CD83 expression by DC stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Similar to ATPgammaS, ADPbetaS inhibited the release of IL-12p40, IL-12p70, and TNF-alpha stimulated by LPS (1-100 ng/ml). The inhibitory effect of ADPbetaS on IL-12 release was neither reversed by AR-C69931MX or by MRS-2179. The two nucleotides had opposite effects on IL-10 production: inhibition by ADPbetaS and potentiation by ATPgammaS. In conclusion, ATP can modulate the function of DC, directly via a cAMP increase mediated by the P2Y11 receptor and indirectly via its degradation into ADP, which acts via Gi-coupled receptors coupled to ERK activation and calcium mobilization. These distinct mechanisms converge on the inhibition of inflammatory cytokine production, particularly IL-12, but have a differential effect on IL-10.[1]


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