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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Angiogenesis and morphometry of bovine placentas in late gestation from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro.

The objective of this study was to determine the effects of in vitro embryo production on angiogenesis and morphometry of the bovine placenta during late gestation. Blastocysts produced in vivo were recovered from superovulated Holstein cows. Blastocysts produced in vitro were obtained after culture of in vitro-matured and -fertilized Holstein oocytes. Single blastocysts from each production system were transferred into heifers. Fetuses and placentas were recovered on Day 222 of gestation (in vivo, n=12; in vitro, n=12). Cotyledonary and caruncular tissues were obtained for quantification of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma) mRNA and protein. Tissue sections of placentomes were prepared for morphometric analysis. Fetuses and placentas were heavier from embryos produced in vitro than from embryos produced in vivo. More placentas from embryos produced in vitro had an excessive volume of placental fluid. There was no effect of treatment on the expression of mRNA for VEGF and PPARgamma in either cotyledonary or caruncular tissues. The expression of VEGF protein in cotyledons and caruncles as well as the expression of PPARgamma protein in cotyledons were not different between the in vitro and in vivo groups. However, caruncles from the in vitro group had increased expression of PPARgamma protein. The total surface area of endometrium was greater for the in vitro group compared with controls. In contrast, the percentage placentome surface area was decreased in the in vitro group. Fetal villi and binucleate cell volume densities were decreased in placentomes from embryos produced in vitro. The proportional tissue volume of blood vessels in the maternal caruncles was increased in the in vitro group. Furthermore, the ratios of blood vessel volume density-to-placentome surface area were increased in the in vitro group. In conclusion, these findings are consistent with the concept that compensatory mechanisms exist in the vascular beds of placentas from bovine embryos produced in vitro.[1]


  1. Angiogenesis and morphometry of bovine placentas in late gestation from embryos produced in vivo or in vitro. Miles, J.R., Farin, C.E., Rodriguez, K.F., Alexander, J.E., Farin, P.W. Biol. Reprod. (2004) [Pubmed]
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