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Disease relevance of Placenta


High impact information on Placenta

  • Although Esx1 mutant embryos were initially comparable in size with controls at 13.5 days post coitum (dpc), their placentas were significantly larger [5].
  • Placentas from women who smoked cigarettes contained greater amounts of cytochrome P-450 with the monoclonal antibody-specific epitope than placentas from nonsmokers [6].
  • A monoclonal antibody-directed radioimmunoassay was developed that detects epitope-specific cytochromes P-450 in human placentas and peripheral lymphocytes [6].
  • 0. Supplementing PPAR gamma null embryos with wild-type placentas via aggregation with tetraploid embryos corrects the cardiac defect, implicating a previously unrecognized dependence of the developing heart on a functional placenta [7].
  • Decreased binding of epidermal growth factor in placentas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats [8].

Chemical compound and disease context of Placenta


Biological context of Placenta


Anatomical context of Placenta

  • Delayed branching of the chorioallantois was evident, and, although embryonic blood vessels were present in the labyrinthine layer of SOCS3(-/-) placentas, the network of embryonic vessels and maternal sinuses was poorly developed [19].
  • 5. The dph3(-)(/)(-) placentas also developed abnormally, showing a thinner labyrinth lacking embryonic erythrocytes and blood vessels [20].
  • Placentas lacking GATA-2 secrete significantly less angiogenic activity than wild-type placentas as measured in an endothelial cell migration assay, consistent with a reduction in expression of the angiogenic hormone proliferin [21].
  • Ligand and receptor proteins were identified in lysates from all three sources although the soluble receptor, TR6, was scarce in placentas and all receptors were in low abundance in cytotrophoblast cells [22].
  • Uptake of guanidine, an endogenous organic cation, into brush-border membrane vesicles isolated from human term placentas was investigated [23].

Associations of Placenta with chemical compounds


Gene context of Placenta

  • Coexpression of H19 and IGF2 in the androgenetic tissues was in a single population of cells, mononuclear trophoblast--the same cell type expressing these genes in biparental placentas [27].
  • There was consistent overgrowth of the Ipl-null placentas, with expansion of the spongiotrophoblast [15].
  • Here, we show that the mucin gene Muc1 is a PPARgamma target, whose expression is lost in PPARgamma null placentas [28].
  • In later stage placentas, Vbp1 expression was, however, considerably reduced [29].
  • RPA1 was similarly detected in placenta and eNOS mRNA levels in placentas carrying the -786T-->C mutation were significantly lower than in placentas without it [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Placenta


  1. Placental lactogen administration reverses the effect of low-protein diet on maternal and fetal serum somatomedin levels in the pregnant rat. Pilistine, S.J., Moses, A.C., Munro, H.N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  2. Altered expression of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 in placentas from pregnant women with preeclampsia and/or intrauterine fetal growth retardation. Estellés, A., Gilabert, J., Keeton, M., Eguchi, Y., Aznar, J., Grancha, S., Espña, F., Loskutoff, D.J., Schleef, R.R. Blood (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Activation of the canonical wingless/t-cell factor signaling pathway promotes invasive differentiation of human trophoblast. Pollheimer, J., Loregger, T., Sonderegger, S., Saleh, L., Bauer, S., Bilban, M., Czerwenka, K., Husslein, P., Knöfler, M. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  4. Ultrastructural morphometric analysis of Brucella abortus-infected trophoblasts in experimental placentitis. Bacterial replication occurs in rough endoplasmic reticulum. Anderson, T.D., Cheville, N.F. Am. J. Pathol. (1986) [Pubmed]
  5. Esx1 is an X-chromosome-imprinted regulator of placental development and fetal growth. Li, Y., Behringer, R.R. Nat. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  6. Monoclonal antibody-directed radioimmunoassay detects cytochrome P-450 in human placenta and lymphocytes. Song, B.J., Gelboin, H.V., Park, S.S., Tsokos, G.C., Friedman, F.K. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  7. PPAR gamma is required for placental, cardiac, and adipose tissue development. Barak, Y., Nelson, M.C., Ong, E.S., Jones, Y.Z., Ruiz-Lozano, P., Chien, K.R., Koder, A., Evans, R.M. Mol. Cell (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Decreased binding of epidermal growth factor in placentas from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Sissom, J.F., Stenzel, W.K., Warshaw, J.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1987) [Pubmed]
  9. Invasive cytotrophoblasts manifest evidence of oxidative stress in preeclampsia. Many, A., Hubel, C.A., Fisher, S.J., Roberts, J.M., Zhou, Y. Am. J. Pathol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. Glucose transporter protein expression in human placenta throughout gestation and in intrauterine growth retardation. Jansson, T., Wennergren, M., Illsley, N.P. J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Adherence of Treponema pallidum subsp. pallidum in the rabbit placenta. Burgess, A.W., Paradise, L.J., Hilbelink, D., Friedman, H. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Colony stimulating factor augmentation in human placental conditioned medium. Verma, D.S., Spitzer, G., Beran, M., Zander, A.R., McCredie, K.B., Dicke, K.A. Exp. Hematol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  13. Fetal and placental growth in young, primiparous and old, multiparous rats. Rahima, A., Bruce, N.W. Exp. Gerontol. (1987) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of insulin-like growth factor II in human placentas from normal and diabetic pregnancies. Shen, S.J., Wang, C.Y., Nelson, K.K., Jansen, M., Ilan, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1986) [Pubmed]
  15. Placental overgrowth in mice lacking the imprinted gene Ipl. Frank, D., Fortino, W., Clark, L., Musalo, R., Wang, W., Saxena, A., Li, C.M., Reik, W., Ludwig, T., Tycko, B. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Heterogeneous X inactivation in trophoblastic cells of human full-term female placentas. Looijenga, L.H., Gillis, A.J., Verkerk, A.J., van Putten, W.L., Oosterhuis, J.W. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  17. Detection of aflatoxin B1-DNA adducts in human placenta and cord blood. Hsieh, L.L., Hsieh, T.T. Cancer Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  18. Strain-dependent embryonic lethality in mice lacking the retinoblastoma-related p130 gene. LeCouter, J.E., Kablar, B., Whyte, P.F., Ying, C., Rudnicki, M.A. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. Placental defects and embryonic lethality in mice lacking suppressor of cytokine signaling 3. Roberts, A.W., Robb, L., Rakar, S., Hartley, L., Cluse, L., Nicola, N.A., Metcalf, D., Hilton, D.J., Alexander, W.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. Dph3, a small protein required for diphthamide biosynthesis, is essential in mouse development. Liu, S., Wiggins, J.F., Sreenath, T., Kulkarni, A.B., Ward, J.M., Leppla, S.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. GATA-2 and GATA-3 regulate trophoblast-specific gene expression in vivo. Ma, G.T., Roth, M.E., Groskopf, J.C., Tsai, F.Y., Orkin, S.H., Grosveld, F., Engel, J.D., Linzer, D.I. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Differential expression of LIGHT and its receptors in human placental villi and amniochorion membranes. Gill, R.M., Ni, J., Hunt, J.S. Am. J. Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Evidence for an organic cation-proton antiport system in brush-border membranes isolated from the human term placenta. Ganapathy, V., Ganapathy, M.E., Nair, C.N., Mahesh, V.B., Leibach, F.H. J. Biol. Chem. (1988) [Pubmed]
  24. Inner-ring deiodination of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in the in situ perfused guinea pig placenta. Castro, M.I., Braverman, L.E., Alex, S., Wu, C.F., Emerson, C.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. 3-Hydroxyxanthine: transplacental effects and ontogeny of related sulfate metabolism in rats and mice. Anderson, L.M., McDonald, J.J., Budinger, J.M., Mountain, I.M., Brown, G.B. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1978) [Pubmed]
  26. Calcium-dependent, cyclic nucleotide-independent steroidogenesis in the bovine placenta. Shemesh, M., Hansel, W., Strauss, J.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Oppositely imprinted genes H19 and insulin-like growth factor 2 are coexpressed in human androgenetic trophoblast. Mutter, G.L., Stewart, C.L., Chaponot, M.L., Pomponio, R.J. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1993) [Pubmed]
  28. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma controls Muc1 transcription in trophoblasts. Shalom-Barak, T., Nicholas, J.M., Wang, Y., Zhang, X., Ong, E.S., Young, T.H., Gendler, S.J., Evans, R.M., Barak, Y. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression of the von Hippel-Lindau-binding protein-1 (Vbp1) in fetal and adult mouse tissues. Hemberger, M., Himmelbauer, H., Neumann, H.P., Plate, K.H., Schwarzkopf, G., Fundele, R. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  30. Replication protein A1 reduces transcription of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene containing a -786T-->C mutation associated with coronary spastic angina. Miyamoto, Y., Saito, Y., Nakayama, M., Shimasaki, Y., Yoshimura, T., Yoshimura, M., Harada, M., Kajiyama, N., Kishimoto, I., Kuwahara, K., Hino, J., Ogawa, E., Hamanaka, I., Kamitani, S., Takahashi, N., Kawakami, R., Kangawa, K., Yasue, H., Nakao, K. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  31. Choriodecidual production of interleukin-8 and mechanism of parturition. Kelly, R.W., Leask, R., Calder, A.A. Lancet (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Homeobox gene HLX1 expression is decreased in idiopathic human fetal growth restriction. Murthi, P., Doherty, V., Said, J., Donath, S., Brennecke, S.P., Kalionis, B. Am. J. Pathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  33. The occurrence and frequency of type C virus-like particles in placentas from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and from normal subjects. Imamura, M., Phillips, P.E., Mellors, R.C. Am. J. Pathol. (1976) [Pubmed]
  34. Immunohistologic detection of antigen related to primate type C retrovirus p30 in normal human placentas. Maeda, S., Mellors, R.C., Mellors, J.W., Jerabek, L.B., Zervoudakis, I.A. Am. J. Pathol. (1983) [Pubmed]
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