The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ethanol potentiates HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in human neurons via both the death receptor and NMDA receptor pathways.

Neuronal loss is a hallmark of AIDS dementia syndromes. Human immunodeficiency virus type I (HIV-1)-specific proteins may induce neuronal apoptosis, but the signal transduction of HIV-1 gp120-induced, direct neuronal apoptosis remains unclear. Ethanol (EtOH) is considered to be an environmental co-factor in AIDS development. However, whether EtOH abuse in patients with AIDS increases neuronal dysfunction is still uncertain. Using pure, differentiated, and post-mitotic NT2.N-derived human neurons, we investigated the mechanisms of HIV-1 and/or EtOH-related direct neuronal injury and the molecular interactions between HIV-1-specific proteins and EtOH. It was demonstrated that NT2.N neurons were susceptible to HIV-1 Bal (R5-tropic strain) gp120-induced direct cell death. Of importance, EtOH induced cell death in human neurons in a clinically-relevant dose range and EtOH strongly potentiated HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal injury at low and moderate concentrations. Furthermore, this potentiation of neurotoxicity could be blocked by N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) antagonists. We analyzed human genomic profiles in these human neurons, using Affymetrix genomics technology, to elucidate the apoptotic pathways involved in HIV-1- and EtOH-related neurodegeneration. Our findings indicated significant over-expression of selected apoptosis functional genes. Significant up-regulation of TRAF5 gene expression may play an essential role in triggering potentiation by EtOH of HIV-1 gp120-induced neuronal apoptosis at early stages of interaction. These studies suggested that two primary apoptotic pathways, death receptor (extrinsic) and NMDA receptor (intrinsic)-related programmed cell-death pathways, are both involved in the potentiation by EtOH of HIV-1 gp120-induced direct human neuronal death. Thus, these data suggest rationally-designed, molecular targets for potential anti-HIV-1 neuroprotection.[1]


  1. Ethanol potentiates HIV-1 gp120-induced apoptosis in human neurons via both the death receptor and NMDA receptor pathways. Chen, W., Tang, Z., Fortina, P., Patel, P., Addya, S., Surrey, S., Acheampong, E.A., Mukhtar, M., Pomerantz, R.J. Virology (2005) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities