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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Dioxododecenoic acid: a lipid hydroperoxide-derived bifunctional electrophile responsible for etheno DNA adduct formation.

It has been proposed that 13(S)-hydroperoxy-9Z,11E-octadecadienoic acid [13(S)-HPODE]-mediated formation of 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal and 4-hydroxy-2(E)-nonenal arises from a Hock rearrangement. This suggested that a 4-oxo-2(E)-nonenal-related molecule, 9,12-dioxo-10(E)-dodecenoic acid (DODE), could also result from the intermediate formation of 9-hydroperoxy-12-oxo-10(E)-dodecenoic acid. A recent report has described the formation of DODE-derived etheno adducts when 13(S)-HPODE was allowed to decompose in the presence of 2'-deoxynucleosides or DNA. However, the regioselectivity of lipid hydroperoxide-derived DODE addition to 2'-deoxyguanosine (dGuo) or other 2'-deoxynucleosides was not determined. The structure of carboxynonanone-etheno-dGuo formed from vitamin C-mediated 13(S)-HPODE decomposition has now been established by a combination of 1H and 13C NMR spectroscopy studies of its bis-methylated derivative. The site of dGuo methylation was first established as being at N-5 rather than at O-9 from NMR analysis of a methyl derivative of the model compound, heptanone-etheno-dGuo. (1)H,(13)C 2D heteronuclear multiple bond correlations were then used to establish unequivocally that the bis-methyl derivative of carboxynonanone-etheno-dGuo was 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-erythropentafuranosyl)imidazo-7-(9' '-carboxymethylnona-2' '-one)-9-oxo-5-N-methyl[1,2-a]purine rather than its 6-(9' '-carboxymethylnona-2"-one)-9-oxo-5-N-methyl[1,2-a]purine regioisomer. Therefore, etheno adduct formation occurred by initial nucleophilic attack of the exocyclic N(2) amino group of dGuo at the C-12 aldehyde of DODE to form an unstable carbinolamine intermediate. This was followed by intramolecular Michael addition of the pyrimidine N1 of dGuo to C-11 of the resulting alpha,beta-unsaturated ketone. Subsequent dehydration gave 3-(2'-deoxy-beta-d-erythropentafuranosyl)imidazo-7-(9' '-carboxynona-2' '-one)-9-oxo-[1,2-a]purine (carboxynonanone-etheno-dGuo). An efficient synthesis of DODE was developed starting from readily available 1,8-octanediol using a furan homologation procedure. This synthetic method allowed multigram quantities of DODE to be readily prepared. Synthetic DODE when reacted with dGuo gave carboxynonanone-etheno-dGuo that was identical with that derived from vitamin C-mediated 13(S)-HPODE decomposition in the presence of dGuo.[1]


  1. Dioxododecenoic acid: a lipid hydroperoxide-derived bifunctional electrophile responsible for etheno DNA adduct formation. Lee, S.H., Silva Elipe, M.V., Arora, J.S., Blair, I.A. Chem. Res. Toxicol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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