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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Negative regulation of RhoA/ Rho kinase by angiotensin II type 2 receptor in vascular smooth muscle cells: role in angiotensin II-induced vasodilation in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

OBJECTIVE: To test whether angiotensin II (Ang II) through the Ang II type 2 receptor (AT2R), downregulates RhoA/ Rho kinase, which plays a role in AT1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated function. METHODS: In vitro studies were performed in A10 vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) and in vivo studies in mesenteric arteries from Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rats. VSMC were stimulated with Ang II (10 mol/l), CGP42112A (10 mol/l, a selective AT2R agonist) +/- valsartan (10 mol/l, an AT1R antagonist), or the Rho kinase inhibitor fasudil (10 mol/l). AT1R and AT2R expression and myosin light chain (MLC) phosphorylation were determined by immunoblotting. RhoA activity was assessed by measuring membrane translocation. Functional significance between AT2R, RhoA/ Rho kinase and vasodilation was assessed in arteries from valsartan-treated (30 mg/kg per day, 14 days) WKY and SHRSP rats. Vasodilatory responses to Ang II (10-10 mol/l) were performed in norepinephrine pre-contracted vessels +/- valsartan(10 mol/l), PD123319 (10 mol/l, an AT2R antagonist) or fasudil (10 mol/l). RESULTS: A10 VSMC expressed AT1R and AT2R. In valsartan-treated cells, Ang II-induced RhoA translocation was reduced versus controls (42 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). Similar responses were obtained with CGP42112A (45 +/- 6%, P < 0.05). This was associated with decreased MLC activation. Fasudil abrogated Ang II- and CGP42112A-mediated effects. Ang II evoked a significant vasodilatory response only in valsartan-treated SHRSP (max dilation 40 +/- 7%). PD123319 blocked these effects. Fasudil increased AngII-induced relaxation in SHRSP vessels. AT2R expression was increased by valsartan (two- to three-fold) in SHRSP arteries. RhoA translocation was increased two-fold in untreated SHRSP (P < 0.05) and was reduced by valsartan (P < 0.05). These changes were associated with decreased MLC phosphorylation. CONCLUSIONS: Ang II/AT2R negatively regulates vascular RhoA/ Rho kinase/MLC phosphorylation. These processes may play a role in Ang II-mediated vasodilation in conditions associated with vascular AT2R upregulation, such as in SHRSP chronically treated with AT1R blockers, which may contribute to blood pressure lowering by these antihypertensive agents.[1]


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