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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Altered expression of CLC, DSG3, EMP3, S100A2, and SLPI in corneal epithelium from keratoconus patients.

PURPOSE: This investigation was designed to determine whether the five genes, CLC, DSG3, EMP3, S100A2 and SLPI, are differentially expressed in keratoconus, as indicated from another study. METHODS: Gene expression was monitored using quantitative real-time PCR on 14 keratoconus samples and 16 controls, and normalized to GAPDH and B2M. The DSG3, S100A2, and SLPI proteins were quantified by Western blotting, and the cellular localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. One of the genes, CLC, was reduced in gene expression and its four exons were sequenced. RESULTS: The five genes were all differentially expressed in keratoconus (P < 0.04) and so were at least three of the encoded proteins (P = 0.009). DSG3 was expressed in association with the cell membrane of the basal and suprabasal epithelial cells, and S100A2 was expressed in the nucleus and cytoplasm, often as intracellular granules. Two SNPs (rs374185 and rs384138) were observed in the CLC gene, each with an allele frequency of 68%. No other mutations were detected. CONCLUSIONS: The five genes, and three of the encoded proteins, were shown differentially expressed between a group of keratoconus patients and a reference group using different techniques. These alterations, in combination with earlier findings, strongly demonstrate the genes to be involved in the corneal disease. We suggest the unambiguously expressed DSG3 protein to be used as a marker for keratoconus.[1]


  1. Altered expression of CLC, DSG3, EMP3, S100A2, and SLPI in corneal epithelium from keratoconus patients. Nielsen, K., Heegaard, S., Vorum, H., Birkenkamp-Demtröder, K., Ehlers, N., Orntoft, T.F. Cornea (2005) [Pubmed]
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