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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Disruption of lipid rafts stimulates phospholipase d activity in human lymphocytes: implication in the regulation of immune function.

Recent evidence suggests that phospholipase D (PLD) can be regulated through its association/dissociation to lipid rafts. We show here that modifying lipid rafts either by cholesterol depletion using methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and filipin or by conversion of sphingomyelin to ceramide with exogenous bacterial sphingomyelinase (bSMase) markedly activated the PLD of human PBMC. bSMase was the most potent PLD activator, giving maximal 6- to 7-fold increase in PLD activity. Triton X-100-treated lysates prepared from control PBMC and from bSMase-treated cells were fractionated by centrifugation on sucrose density gradient. We observed that bSMase treatment of the cells induced a larger ceramide increase in raft than in nonraft membranes and displaced both the Src kinase Lck and PLD1 out of the raft fractions. In addition, the three raft-modifying agents markedly inhibited the lymphoproliferative response to mitogenic lectin. To examine further the potential role of PLD activation in the control of lymphocyte responses, we transiently overexpressed either of the PLD1 and PLD2 isoforms in Jurkat cells and analyzed the phorbol ester plus ionomycin- induced expression of IL-2 mRNA, which is one of the early responses of lymphocyte to activation. We observed a 43% decrease of IL-2 mRNA level in Jurkat cells overexpressing PLD1 as compared with mock- or PLD2-transfected cells, which indicates that elevated PLD1, but not PLD2, activity impairs lymphocyte activation. Altogether, the present results support the hypothesis that PLD1 is activated by exclusion from lipid rafts and that this activation conveys antiproliferative signals in lymphoid cells.[1]


  1. Disruption of lipid rafts stimulates phospholipase d activity in human lymphocytes: implication in the regulation of immune function. Diaz, O., Mébarek-Azzam, S., Benzaria, A., Dubois, M., Lagarde, M., Némoz, G., Prigent, A.F. J. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
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