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Chemical Compound Review

tritium(1+)     tritium(+1) cation

Synonyms: AC1NUTH7, CHEBI:29234, T(+), (3)H(+), (3)1H(+)
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Disease relevance of Triton


Psychiatry related information on Triton

  • In addition, endogenous Abeta1-40 in a Triton X-100-insoluble fraction of a brain homogenate of the Tg2576 transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease formed oligomers when the fraction was incubated at 4 degrees C for 20 hr [6].
  • The use of Triton X-100 gave an improved response time [7].
  • 2. We report (i) significant relationships between 5' DAT haplotypes and human individual differences in ventral striatal DAT expression assessed in vivo using [(11)C] cocaine PET and (ii) apparent confirmation of these results in studies of DAT expression in postmortem striatum using [(3)H] carboxyflurotropane binding [8].
  • To test whether the myofilament response to Ca2+ is altered with chronic alcohol consumption, we measured the relation between Ca2+ and force of atrial fiber bundle preparations extracted with Triton X-100 [9].

High impact information on Triton

  • The ATPase activity is 50% inhibited by 10 microM vanadate, 1 mM N-ethyl maleimide, or 5 mM AMP-PNP; it is enhanced 50% by 0.2% Triton [10].
  • Furthermore, this sarcomeric protein partitions between the Triton X-100 insoluble and soluble phases to the same extent as the endogenous beta-actin [11].
  • Immunoprecipitation of Triton X-100-soluble and -insoluble cytoskeletal fractions with alpha- and beta-spectrin antisera show that, at steady state, alpha and beta spectrin are present in stoichiometric amounts, and exclusively, in the cytoskeleton [12].
  • HeLa cytoskeletons prepared with Triton in a translation-extraction buffer without reticulocyte or wheat germ lysate efficiently incorporate 35S-methionine into polypeptides, and are stable during this translation [13].
  • From compartment analysis and Triton solubilization it appears that XM1 is bound to the nuclear membrane [14].

Chemical compound and disease context of Triton

  • [(3)H] methyl incorporation into colonic DNA was 26% higher in patients with adenoma (95% CI: 8% to 56%, P = 0.009) and 30% higher in patients with cancer (95% CI: -3% to 48%, P = 0.08) compared with controls [15].
  • Influenza virus HA glycoprotein, on the contrary, acquired resistance to endoglycosidase H and insolubility in Triton X-100, indicating passage through the Golgi [16].
  • Sulfate is incorporated into exogenously added glycoproteins by sulfotransferases from Triton X-100-lysed Golgi membranes in the presence of 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'-phospho[35S]sulfate, which is generated from [35S]sulfate by a ribosome-free supernate from Krebs ascites tumor cells [17].
  • High molecular weight polypeptides (HMWPs) of 270,000 to 340,000 were found to be major components of intermediate filaments prepared by Triton X-100 extraction after spreading of rat glioma C6, HeLa, Chinese hamster ovary, and simian virus 40-transformed Chinese hamster lung cells [18].
  • Epinephrine, on the other hand, promoted translocation of a portion of the pertussis toxin-sensitive Gi alpha-2 from the Triton-soluble fraction to the Triton-insoluble fraction [19].

Biological context of Triton

  • Upon phosphorylation of Cbl, the CAP-Cbl complex dissociates from the insulin receptor and moves to a caveolin-enriched, triton-insoluble membrane fraction [20].
  • In unstimulated platelets, a minor portion of the complex localized to Triton-insoluble raft fractions; this portion increased three to sixfold with platelet activation by VWF [21].
  • Displacement of the lipids of LDL by Triton X-100 resulted in the formation of an apo B-Triton complex which, however, did not bind to the immunoglobulin; apparently the binding site on apo B was lost [22].
  • ABCA1 transgene expression delayed 125I-apoA-I catabolism in both liver and kidney, leading to increased plasma apoA-I levels, but had no effect on apoB secretion after infusion of Triton WR1339 [23].
  • After intragastric [(3)H]triolein administration in Triton WR1339-pretreated animals, the appearance of (3)H-triglycerides in plasma was reduced by 70% in Mdr2((-/-)) compared with Mdr2((+/+)) mice, excluding accelerated lipolysis as the cause of defective triglyceride response in Mdr2((-/-)) mice [24].

Anatomical context of Triton


Associations of Triton with other chemical compounds

  • Two populations of receptors for gamma-aminobutyric acid, one with low- and the other with high-affinity characteristics, are detectable in frozen, thawed, Triton-treated synaptic membrane preparations from normal brain [29].
  • The activity, constituted by at least two isozymes I and II, can be solubilized by Triton X-100, has a pH optimum of 5.0-6.0, and recognizes only thymidine, deoxyadenosine, deoxyguanosine, and deoxycytidine as the phosphate acceptor [30].
  • After MVM solubilization with 1% Triton X-100, affinity chromatography over oleate-agarose and elution with 7 M urea yielded a single 40,000-mol-wt protein [31].
  • Additional in vivo studies with Triton-treated mice showed increased VLDL triglyceride, but not apo B, production in the HuCIIITg mice compared with controls [32].
  • The bulk of the cytoplasmic and plasma membrane protein was removed by extraction with Triton X-100, and subsequently the juxtanuclear detergent-insoluble fraction containing filaments of 100-150 A was released into citrate buffer at pH 2 [33].

Gene context of Triton

  • IL-11 induced a shift of hsp25 to Triton x-100 insoluble fractions containing cytoskeletal elements, which was not associated with altered hsp25 phosphorylation [34].
  • EGFR dephosphorylation can also be modulated by these non-physiologic agents in isolated plasma membranes in the presence of Triton X-100 [35].
  • The Ent1 protein was localized to peripheral and internal punctate structures, and biochemical fractionation studies found the protein associated with a large, Triton X-100-insoluble pellet [36].
  • In addition, a small amount of iNOS was found to cofractionate with cav-1 in Triton X-100-insoluble membrane fractions where also iNOS degradation was apparent [37].
  • Moreover, in Triton-skinned ventricular trabeculae, S100A1 protein significantly decreased myofibrillar Ca(2+) sensitivity ([EC(50%)]) and Ca(2+) cooperativity, whereas maximal isometric force remained unchanged [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Triton


  1. A microsomal butyrylesterase appearing in rat livers during development, regeneration, and carcinogenesis, and after phenobarbital treatment. Kaneko, A., Chisaka, N., Enomoto, K., Kaku, T., Dempo, K., Mori, M., Onoe, T. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1979) [Pubmed]
  2. Plasminogen activators in human malignant melanoma. Markus, G., Kohga, S., Camiolo, S.M., Madeja, J.M., Ambrus, J.L., Karakousis, C. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1984) [Pubmed]
  3. Human primary colon carcinomas xenografted into nude mice. I. Characterization of plasminogen activators expressed by primary tumors and their xenografts. Cajot, J.F., Sordat, B., Kruithof, E.K., Bachmann, F. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Sex steroid influence on triglyceride metabolism. Kim, H.J., Kalkhoff, R.K. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  5. Borrelia burgdorferi bind to epithelial cell proteoglycans. Isaacs, R.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. Oligomerization of amyloid beta-protein occurs during the isolation of lipid rafts. Yu, W., Zou, K., Gong, J.S., Ko, M., Yanagisawa, K., Michikawa, M. J. Neurosci. Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Optimisation of the enzyme-based determination of hydrogen peroxide using the quartz crystal microbalance. Martin, S.P., Lynch, J.M., Reddy, S.M. Biosensors & bioelectronics. (2002) [Pubmed]
  8. Common Human 5' Dopamine Transporter (SLC6A3) Haplotypes Yield Varying Expression Levels In Vivo. Drgon, T., Lin, Z., Wang, G.J., Fowler, J., Pablo, J., Mash, D.C., Volkow, N., Uhl, G.R. Cell. Mol. Neurobiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  9. Calcium sensitivity and the effect of the calcium sensitizing drug pimobendan in the alcoholic isolated rat atrium. Piano, M.R., Rosenblum, C., Solaro, R.J., Schwertz, D. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a microtubule-based cytoplasmic motor in the nematode C. elegans. Lye, R.J., Porter, M.E., Scholey, J.M., McIntosh, J.R. Cell (1987) [Pubmed]
  11. Expression of human cardiac actin in mouse L cells: a sarcomeric actin associates with a nonmuscle cytoskeleton. Gunning, P., Ponte, P., Kedes, L., Hickey, R.J., Skoultchi, A.I. Cell (1984) [Pubmed]
  12. Synthesis and assembly of spectrin during avian erythropoiesis: stoichiometric assembly but unequal synthesis of alpha and beta spectrin. Blikstad, I., Nelson, W.J., Moon, R.T., Lazarides, E. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  13. Many cytoskeletal proteins associate with the hela cytoskeleton during translation in vitro. Fulton, A.B., Wan, K.M. Cell (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. A B-lymphocyte-specific high-turnover protein: constitutive expression in resting B cells and induction of synthesis in proliferating cells. Rahmsdorf, H.J., Mallick, U., Ponta, H., Herrlich, P. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  15. Folate status, genomic DNA hypomethylation, and risk of colorectal adenoma and cancer: a case control study. Pufulete, M., Al-Ghnaniem, R., Leather, A.J., Appleby, P., Gout, S., Terry, C., Emery, P.W., Sanders, T.A. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Differential targeting of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein and influenza virus hemagglutinin appears during myogenesis of L6 muscle cells. Rahkila, P., Luukela, V., Väänänen, K., Metsikkö, K. J. Cell Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Sulfation of lutropin oligosaccharides with a cell-free system. Green, E.D., Gruenebaum, J., Bielinska, M., Baenziger, J.U., Boime, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  18. High molecular weight polypeptides (270,000-340,000) from cultured cells are related to hog brain microtubule-associated proteins but copurify with intermediate filaments. Pytela, R., Wiche, G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. Epinephrine induces changes in the subcellular distribution of the inhibitory GTP-binding protein Gi alpha-2 and a 38-kDa phosphorylated protein in the human platelet. Crouch, M.F., Winegar, D.A., Lapetina, E.G. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  20. CAP defines a second signalling pathway required for insulin-stimulated glucose transport. Baumann, C.A., Ribon, V., Kanzaki, M., Thurmond, D.C., Mora, S., Shigematsu, S., Bickel, P.E., Pessin, J.E., Saltiel, A.R. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  21. Localization of the adhesion receptor glycoprotein Ib-IX-V complex to lipid rafts is required for platelet adhesion and activation. Shrimpton, C.N., Borthakur, G., Larrucea, S., Cruz, M.A., Dong, J.F., López, J.A. J. Exp. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  22. Immune complex hyperlipidemia induced by an apolipoprotein-reactive immunoglobulin A paraprotein from a patient with multiple myeloma. Characterization of this immunoglobulin. Kilgore, L.L., Patterson, B.W., Parenti, D.M., Fisher, W.R. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. ABCA1 overexpression leads to hyperalphalipoproteinemia and increased biliary cholesterol excretion in transgenic mice. Vaisman, B.L., Lambert, G., Amar, M., Joyce, C., Ito, T., Shamburek, R.D., Cain, W.J., Fruchart-Najib, J., Neufeld, E.D., Remaley, A.T., Brewer, H.B., Santamarina-Fojo, S. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  24. Postprandial chylomicron formation and fat absorption in multidrug resistance gene 2 P-glycoprotein-deficient mice. Voshol, P.J., Minich, D.M., Havinga, R., Elferink, R.P., Verkade, H.J., Groen, A.K., Kuipers, F. Gastroenterology (2000) [Pubmed]
  25. The spatial distribution of polyribosomes in 3T3 cells and the associated assembly of proteins into the skeletal framework. Fulton, A.B., Wan, K.M., Penman, S. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  26. Putative association of mitochondria with a subpopulation of intermediate-sized filaments in cultured human skin fibroblasts. Mose-Larsen, P., Bravo, R., Fey, S.J., Small, J.V., Celis, J.E. Cell (1982) [Pubmed]
  27. Histone variants specific to the transcriptionally active, amitotically dividing macronucleus of the unicellular eucaryote, Tetrahymena thermophila. Allis, C.D., Glover, C.V., Bowen, J.K., Gorovsky, M.A. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Isolation of mitotic apparatus containing vesicles with calcium sequestration activity. Silver, R.B., Cole, R.D., Cande, W.Z. Cell (1980) [Pubmed]
  29. Experimental hepatic encephalopathy: changes in the binding of gamma-aminobutyric acid. Baraldi, M., Zeneroli, Z.L. Science (1982) [Pubmed]
  30. The deoxyribonucleoside phosphotransferase of Trichomonas vaginalis. A potential target for anti-trichomonial chemotherapy. Wang, C.C., Cheng, H.W. J. Exp. Med. (1984) [Pubmed]
  31. Identification, isolation, and partial characterization of a fatty acid binding protein from rat jejunal microvillous membranes. Stremmel, W., Lotz, G., Strohmeyer, G., Berk, P.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Mechanism of hypertriglyceridemia in human apolipoprotein (apo) CIII transgenic mice. Diminished very low density lipoprotein fractional catabolic rate associated with increased apo CIII and reduced apo E on the particles. Aalto-Setälä, K., Fisher, E.A., Chen, X., Chajek-Shaul, T., Hayek, T., Zechner, R., Walsh, A., Ramakrishnan, R., Ginsberg, H.N., Breslow, J.L. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  33. Intermediate-sized filaments in cultured rat liver tumor cells with Mallory body-like cytoplasm abnormalities. Borenfreund, E., Higgins, P.J., Peterson, E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1980) [Pubmed]
  34. Interleukin-11-induced heat shock protein 25 confers intestinal epithelial-specific cytoprotection from oxidant stress. Ropeleski, M.J., Tang, J., Walsh-Reitz, M.M., Musch, M.W., Chang, E.B. Gastroenterology (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Dephosphorylation of receptor tyrosine kinases as target of regulation by radiation, oxidants or alkylating agents. Knebel, A., Rahmsdorf, H.J., Ullrich, A., Herrlich, P. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  36. Yeast epsins contain an essential N-terminal ENTH domain, bind clathrin and are required for endocytosis. Wendland, B., Steece, K.E., Emr, S.D. EMBO J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Caveolin-1 down-regulates inducible nitric oxide synthase via the proteasome pathway in human colon carcinoma cells. Felley-Bosco, E., Bender, F.C., Courjault-Gautier, F., Bron, C., Quest, A.F. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. S100A1: a regulator of myocardial contractility. Most, P., Bernotat, J., Ehlermann, P., Pleger, S.T., Reppel, M., Börries, M., Niroomand, F., Pieske, B., Janssen, P.M., Eschenhagen, T., Karczewski, P., Smith, G.L., Koch, W.J., Katus, H.A., Remppis, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2001) [Pubmed]
  39. Double immunoglobulin production in cloned somatic cell hybrids between two human lymphoid cell lines. Rosén, A., Clements, G., Klein, G., Zeuthen, J. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Chemoattractant-regulated mobilization of a novel intracellular compartment in human neutrophils. Borregaard, N., Miller, L.J., Springer, T.A. Science (1987) [Pubmed]
  41. Systemic lupus erythematosus patients with central nervous system involvement show autoantibodies to a 50-kD neuronal membrane protein. Hanson, V.G., Horowitz, M., Rosenbluth, D., Spiera, H., Puszkin, S. J. Exp. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  42. Inheritance of the human platelet alloantigen, PlA1, in type I Glanzmann's thrombasthenia. Kunicki, T.J., Pidard, D., Cazenave, J.P., Nurden, A.T., Caen, J.P. J. Clin. Invest. (1981) [Pubmed]
  43. Quantification of Aquaporin-CHIP water channel protein in microdissected renal tubules by fluorescence-based ELISA. Maeda, Y., Smith, B.L., Agre, P., Knepper, M.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1995) [Pubmed]
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