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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Clinical review: Type 1 diabetes-associated autoimmunity: natural history, genetic associations, and screening.

CONTEXT: Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is associated with autoimmune thyroid disease (AIT), celiac disease ( CD), Addison's disease (AD), and other autoimmune diseases. These diseases can occur together in defined syndromes with distinct pathophysiology and characteristics: autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome I, autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome II, and the immunodysregulation polyendocrinopathy enteropathy X-linked syndrome. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: Review of the medical literature was performed with particular attention to the natural history, genetic factors, and syndromes associated with T1D, AIT, CD, and AD. EVIDENCE SYNTHESIS: Genetic risk for these diseases overlaps and includes genes within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) such as the human leukocyte antigens (HLA) DR and DQ alleles and the MHC I-related gene A (MIC-A). Other genes outside of the MHC have been associated with these autoimmune diseases, including the gene encoding the lymphoid tyrosine phosphatase (PTPN22) and the cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4) gene. CONCLUSION: Genetic risk for T1D overlaps with AIT, CD, and AD. Disease risk is associated with organ-specific autoantibodies, which can be used to screen subjects with T1D.[1]


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