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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
MeSH Review

Genes, vif

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Disease relevance of Genes, vif

  • The sigma factor sigma 70 of E. coli RNA polymerase acts not only in initiation, but also at an early stage of elongation to induce a transcription pause, and simultaneously to allow the phage lambda gene Q transcription antiterminator to act [1].
  • In viable yellow ( A(vy)/a) mice, transcription originating in an intra-cisternal A particle (IAP) retrotransposon inserted upstream of the agouti gene (A) causes ectopic expression of agouti protein, resulting in yellow fur, obesity, diabetes and increased susceptibility to tumours [2].
  • Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera [3].
  • BACKGROUND & AIMS: Duodenal ulcer formation in persons infected with Helicobacter pylori correlates with the expression of the cytotoxin-associated gene A (cagA) and the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) [4].
  • A promoter element (CREN, contact regulatory element of Neisseria) is responsible for the transient induction of this gene upon cell contact. crgA (contact-regulated gene A) encodes a transcriptional regulator whose expression is also induced upon cell contact from a promoter region similar to the CREN of pilC1 [5].

High impact information on Genes, vif

  • The recent identification of ROR2, encoding an orphan receptor tyrosine kinase, as the gene mutated in brachydactyly type B (BDB1; ref. 7) and the mesomelic dwarfing in mice homozygous for a lacZ and/or a neo insertion into Ror2 (refs 8,9) made this gene a candidate for RRS [6].
  • Here we show that PPAR-gamma is markedly upregulated in activated macrophages and inhibits the expression of the inducible nitric oxide synthase, gelatinase B and scavenger receptor A genes in response to 15d-PGJ2 and synthetic PPAR-gamma ligands [7].
  • We have identified seven A genes separated into two subcomplexes corresponding to the classical A alpha and A beta loci [8].
  • Self-fusion of the ALL1 gene. A new genetic mechanism for acute leukemia [9].
  • Identification of a recombinogenic major histocompatibility complex Q gene with diverse alleles [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Genes, vif


Biological context of Genes, vif

  • In the three patients exhibiting the classical picture of severe childhood ALD we identified in the 5' portion of the X-ALD gene a 38-bp deletion that causes a frameshift mutation, a 3-bp deletion leading to a deletion of an amino acid in the ATP-binding domain of the ALD protein, and a missense mutation [16].
  • We have identified at the 3' end of intron 6 in the CF gene a 4-bp tandem repeat (GATT) that exhibits interesting features [17].
  • Autoregulation of simian virus 40 gene A by T antigen [18].
  • Mutant mice carrying the H-2(aw18) haplotype, which is characterized by a large deletion in the S region covering the C4 and 21-OHase A genes, permit the direct in vivo analysis of C4-Slp transcription, unhindered by the presence of C4 [19].
  • DNA sequence analysis of the fibrinogen genes A, B, and G revealed a T>C transition in exon 9 resulting in a serine-to-proline substitution near the gamma chain C-terminus (S378P) [20].

Anatomical context of Genes, vif

  • Like the MEA gene, genes A and B were coordinately transcribed in the testis, which suggests that MEA and genes A and B are members of a gene family [21].
  • In fetal GR-null mice, mRNA levels of the type II epithelial cell surfactant protein genes A and C were reduced by approximately 50% [22].
  • The positions of intron/exon boundaries are conserved between the TAFI gene and the rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase A1, A2, and B and the human mast cell carboxypeptidase A genes, indicating that these carboxypeptidases arose from a common ancestral gene [23].
  • We have used an immunohistochemical method to detect the nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein expression in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus during postnatal development [24].
  • Despite the truncation, analysis of the gene A product suggested that it, like full-length NS53, accumulated in association with the cytoskeleton of the infected cell, thus providing evidence that the subcellular localization signal in NS53 resides in the amino terminal half of the protein [25].

Associations of Genes, vif with chemical compounds

  • Hybrid proteins formed by insertions in randomly selected genes and in the araB and A genes were examined by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis [26].
  • We have discovered in the X-linked androgen receptor gene a single exonic nucleotide substitution that causes complete androgen insensitivity (resistance) in a sibship with three affected individuals [27].
  • These data indicate a strong regulation by thyroid hormone of the expression of the growth factor inducible gene NGFI-A during brain development, making this gene a suitable model to study T3 action in the early developing nervous system [28].
  • Tritium-labeled gene A protein cleaves the phiX174 duplex replicative form and is bound to it in a 1:1 ratio as part of an active replication complex [29].
  • Transcriptional regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes. A possible role for the DNA-binding protein Puralpha [30].

Gene context of Genes, vif

  • Taking advantage of the situation that plants encode highly redundant cyclin A genes, we were able to perform functional dissection of CYCA2;3 using null mutant alleles [31].
  • This expression pattern, together with the previously established role of ubiquitination in axon degeneration, makes the chimeric gene a promising candidate for Wld [32].
  • It has been shown from pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) that the monoamine oxidase genes A and B (MAOA & MAOB) and DXS7 loci are physically very close [33].
  • Is the mitochondrial complex I ND5 gene a hot-spot for MELAS causing mutations [34]?
  • In the UGT1A3 gene a W11R, a V47A variant, and a conserved G to A exchange at position 81 with an incidence of 65%, 58%, and 65%, respectively, were identified [35].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Genes, vif


  1. Function of E. coli RNA polymerase sigma factor sigma 70 in promoter-proximal pausing. Ring, B.Z., Yarnell, W.S., Roberts, J.W. Cell (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Epigenetic inheritance at the agouti locus in the mouse. Morgan, H.D., Sutherland, H.G., Martin, D.I., Whitelaw, E. Nat. Genet. (1999) [Pubmed]
  3. Identification of HTLV-III/LAV sor gene product and detection of antibodies in human sera. Kan, N.C., Franchini, G., Wong-Staal, F., DuBois, G.C., Robey, W.G., Lautenberger, J.A., Papas, T.S. Science (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Heterogeneous Helicobacter pylori isolates from members of a family with a history of peptic ulcer disease. van der Ende, A., Rauws, E.A., Feller, M., Mulder, C.J., Tytgat, G.N., Dankert, J. Gastroenterology (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Intimate adhesion of Neisseria meningitidis to human epithelial cells is under the control of the crgA gene, a novel LysR-type transcriptional regulator. Deghmane, A.E., Petit, S., Topilko, A., Pereira, Y., Giorgini, D., Larribe, M., Taha, M.K. EMBO J. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Recessive Robinow syndrome, allelic to dominant brachydactyly type B, is caused by mutation of ROR2. Afzal, A.R., Rajab, A., Fenske, C.D., Oldridge, M., Elanko, N., Ternes-Pereira, E., Tüysüz, B., Murday, V.A., Patton, M.A., Wilkie, A.O., Jeffery, S. Nat. Genet. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma is a negative regulator of macrophage activation. Ricote, M., Li, A.C., Willson, T.M., Kelly, C.J., Glass, C.K. Nature (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. The combination of dissimilar alleles of the A alpha and A beta gene complexes, whose proteins contain homeo domain motifs, determines sexual development in the mushroom Coprinus cinereus. Kües, U., Richardson, W.V., Tymon, A.M., Mutasa, E.S., Göttgens, B., Gaubatz, S., Gregoriades, A., Casselton, L.A. Genes Dev. (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Self-fusion of the ALL1 gene. A new genetic mechanism for acute leukemia. Schichman, S.A., Canaani, E., Croce, C.M. JAMA (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Identification of a recombinogenic major histocompatibility complex Q gene with diverse alleles. Cullen, M.K., Lapierre, L.A., Kesari, K.V., Geliebter, J. J. Exp. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  11. Oxygen-regulated control elements in the phosphoglycerate kinase 1 and lactate dehydrogenase A genes: similarities with the erythropoietin 3' enhancer. Firth, J.D., Ebert, B.L., Pugh, C.W., Ratcliffe, P.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Clinical correlations of osteoarthritis associated with a single-base mutation (arginine519 to cysteine) in type II procollagen gene. A newly defined pathogenesis. Pun, Y.L., Moskowitz, R.W., Lie, S., Sundstrom, W.R., Block, S.R., McEwen, C., Williams, H.J., Bleasel, J.F., Holderbaum, D., Haqqi, T.M. Arthritis Rheum. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Preference for guanosine at first codon position in highly expressed Escherichia coli genes. A relationship with translational efficiency. Gutiérrez, G., Márquez, L., Marín, A. Nucleic Acids Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Cloning of the Escherichia coli sor genes for L-sorbose transport and metabolism and physical mapping of the genes near metH and iclR. Wehmeier, U.F., Nobelmann, B., Lengeler, J.W. J. Bacteriol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Transversion-specific purine analogue mutagens and the mechanism of hydroxylaminopurine mutagenesis. Murray, V. Mutat. Res. (1987) [Pubmed]
  16. Mutations in the gene for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy in patients with different clinical phenotypes. Braun, A., Ambach, H., Kammerer, S., Rolinski, B., Stöckler, S., Rabl, W., Gärtner, J., Zierz, S., Roscher, A.A. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1995) [Pubmed]
  17. A dimorphic 4-bp repeat in the cystic fibrosis gene is in absolute linkage disequilibrium with the delta F508 mutation: implications for prenatal diagnosis and mutation origin. Chehab, F.F., Johnson, J., Louie, E., Goossens, M., Kawasaki, E., Erlich, H. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  18. Autoregulation of simian virus 40 gene A by T antigen. Reed, S.I., Stark, G.R., Alwine, J.C. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1976) [Pubmed]
  19. Male-specific transcription initiation of the C4-Slp gene in mouse liver follows activation of STAT5. Varin-Blank, N., Dondi, E., Tosi, M., Hernandez, C., Boucontet, L., Gotoh, H., Shiroishi, T., Moriwaki, K., Meo, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  20. Fibrinogen Philadelphia, a hypodysfibrinogenemia characterized by abnormal polymerization and fibrinogen hypercatabolism due to gamma S378P mutation. Keller, M.A., Martinez, J., Baradet, T.C., Nagaswami, C., Chernysh, I.N., Borowski, M.K., Surrey, S., Weisel, J.W. Blood (2005) [Pubmed]
  21. Male-enhanced antigen gene is phylogenetically conserved and expressed at late stages of spermatogenesis. Lau, Y.F., Chan, K.M., Sparkes, R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1989) [Pubmed]
  22. Altered epithelial cell proportions in the fetal lung of glucocorticoid receptor null mice. Cole, T.J., Solomon, N.M., Van Driel, R., Monk, J.A., Bird, D., Richardson, S.J., Dilley, R.J., Hooper, S.B. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  23. Characterization of the gene encoding human TAFI (thrombin-activable fibrinolysis inhibitor; plasma procarboxypeptidase B). Boffa, M.B., Reid, T.S., Joo, E., Nesheim, M.E., Koschinsky, M.L. Biochemistry (1999) [Pubmed]
  24. Postnatal expression of the plasticity-related nerve growth factor-induced gene A (NGFI-A) protein in the superficial layers of the rat superior colliculus: relation to N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor function. Giraldi-Guimarães, A., de Bittencourt-Navarrete, R.E., Nascimento, I.C., Salazar, P.R., Freitas-Campos, D., Mendez-Otero, R. Neuroscience (2004) [Pubmed]
  25. The carboxyl-half of the rotavirus nonstructural protein NS53 (NSP1) is not required for virus replication. Hua, J., Patton, J.T. Virology (1994) [Pubmed]
  26. In vivo formation of gene fusions encoding hybrid beta-galactosidase proteins in one step with a transposable Mu-lac transducing phage. Casadaban, M.J., Chou, J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. An exonic point mutation of the androgen receptor gene in a family with complete androgen insensitivity. Sai, T.J., Seino, S., Chang, C.S., Trifiro, M., Pinsky, L., Mhatre, A., Kaufman, M., Lambert, B., Trapman, J., Brinkmann, A.O. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Thyroid hormone up-regulates NGFI-A gene expression in rat brain during development. Pipaon, C., Santos, A., Perez-Castillo, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1992) [Pubmed]
  29. Purification and characterization of phiX174 gene A protein. A multifunctional enzyme of duplex DNA replication. Eisenberg, S., Kornberg, A. J. Biol. Chem. (1979) [Pubmed]
  30. Transcriptional regulation of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptor genes. A possible role for the DNA-binding protein Puralpha. Du, Q., Tomkinson, A.E., Gardner, P.D. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  31. The A-type cyclin CYCA2;3 is a key regulator of ploidy levels in Arabidopsis endoreduplication. Imai, K.K., Ohashi, Y., Tsuge, T., Yoshizumi, T., Matsui, M., Oka, A., Aoyama, T. Plant Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  32. A Ufd2/D4Cole1e chimeric protein and overexpression of Rbp7 in the slow Wallerian degeneration (WldS) mouse. Conforti, L., Tarlton, A., Mack, T.G., Mi, W., Buckmaster, E.A., Wagner, D., Perry, V.H., Coleman, M.P. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2000) [Pubmed]
  33. Characterization of a YAC containing part or all of the Norrie disease locus. Chen, Z.Y., Sims, K.B., Coleman, M., Donnai, D., Monaco, A., Breakefield, X.O., Davies, K.E., Craig, I.W. Hum. Mol. Genet. (1992) [Pubmed]
  34. Is the mitochondrial complex I ND5 gene a hot-spot for MELAS causing mutations? Liolitsa, D., Rahman, S., Benton, S., Carr, L.J., Hanna, M.G. Ann. Neurol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  35. Variation of hepatic glucuronidation: Novel functional polymorphisms of the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase UGT1A4. Ehmer, U., Vogel, A., Schütte, J.K., Krone, B., Manns, M.P., Strassburg, C.P. Hepatology (2004) [Pubmed]
  36. Eleven novel mutations in the factor VIII gene from Brazilian hemophilia A patients. Arruda, V.R., Pieneman, W.C., Reitsma, P.H., Deutz-Terlouw, P.P., Annichino-Bizzacchi, J.M., Briët, E., Costa, F.F. Blood (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Human interferon-alpha A, -alpha 2, and -alpha 2(Arg) genes in genomic DNA. Emanuel, S.L., Pestka, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1993) [Pubmed]
  38. Studies of the recognition sequence of phi X174 gene A protein. Cleavage site of phi X gene A protein in St-1 RFI DNA. Heidekamp, F., Langeveld, S.A., Baas, P.D., Jansz, H.S. Nucleic Acids Res. (1980) [Pubmed]
  39. The role of vitamin B12 in fasting hyperhomocysteinemia and its interaction with the homozygous C677T mutation of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene. A case-control study of patients with early-onset thrombotic events. D'Angelo, A., Coppola, A., Madonna, P., Fermo, I., Pagano, A., Mazzola, G., Galli, L., Cerbone, A.M. Thromb. Haemost. (2000) [Pubmed]
  40. Transcript map of the 8p23 putative tumor suppressor region. Sun, P.C., Uppaluri, R., Schmidt, A.P., Pashia, M.E., Quant, E.C., Sunwoo, J.B., Gollin, S.M., Scholnick, S.B. Genomics (2001) [Pubmed]
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