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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Ca2+ source-dependent transcription of CRE-containing genes in vascular smooth muscle.

Altered Ca2+ handling has immediate physiological and long-term genomic effects on vascular smooth muscle function. Previously we showed that Ca2+ entry through voltage-dependent Ca2+ channels (VDCCs) or store-operated Ca2+ channels (SOCCs) results in phosphorylation of the Ca2+/cAMP response element (CRE)-binding protein in cerebral arteries. Here, oligonucleotide array analysis was used to determine gene transcription profiles resulting from these two Ca2+ entry pathways in human cerebrovascular smooth muscle cell cultures. Results were confirmed and expanded using quantitative RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. A distinct, yet overlapping, set of CRE-regulated genes was induced by VDCC activation using K+ membrane depolarization vs. SOCC activation by thapsigargin (TG). Membrane depolarization selectively induced a sustained increase in early growth response-1 ( Egr-1) mRNA and protein, which were inhibited by the VDCC blocker nimodipine and the SOCC inhibitor 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB). TG selectively induced a sustained increase in MAPK phosphatase-1 ( MKP-1) mRNA and protein, and these effects were decreased by 2-APB, but not by nimodipine. The physiological agonist ANG II also stimulated expression of Egr-1 and MKP-1. Coadministration of 2-APB prevented expression of Egr-1 and MKP-1, whereas nimodipine blocked only Egr-1 expression. TG and ANG II induced phosphorylation of ERK, which was sensitive to 2-APB and was selectively required for CRE-binding protein phosphorylation. Our findings thus indicate that Ca2+ entry through VDCCs and store-operated Ca2+ entry can differentially regulate CRE-containing genes in vascular smooth muscle and also imply that agonist-induced signals involved in modulation of gene transcription can be controlled by multiple sources of Ca2+.[1]


  1. Ca2+ source-dependent transcription of CRE-containing genes in vascular smooth muscle. Pulver-Kaste, R.A., Barlow, C.A., Bond, J., Watson, A., Penar, P.L., Tranmer, B., Lounsbury, K.M. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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