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Chemical Compound Review

Remontal     propan-2-yl 2-methoxyethyl 2,6-dimethyl-4...

Synonyms: Brainal, Kenesil, Nimotop, Calnit, nimodipine, ...
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Disease relevance of Nimotop


Psychiatry related information on Nimotop


High impact information on Nimotop


Chemical compound and disease context of Nimotop


Biological context of Nimotop

  • A saturating dose (10 microM) of the dihydropyridine nimodipine reversibly inhibited the maximum current by 25% and the dose dependence showed IC50 close to 50 nM. omega-Conotoxin GVIA (cgtx, 5 microM) and omega-agatoxin IVA (agatx, 200 nM) irreversibly inhibited the current by 17% and by 47%, respectively [18].
  • In rats and baboons with middle cerebral artery occlusion, nimodipine was found to reduce neurological deficits without an increase in intracranial pressure or brain edema [5].
  • The current resistant to nimodipine and CgTx was activated at lower depolarizations than the CgTx-sensitive current and had faster activation and inactivation kinetics, but unlike low-threshold T-type current, the resistant current had rapidly decaying tail currents [19].
  • Nimodipine (10 micrograms/kg) also blocked the swift increase in alcohol metabolism and elevated oxygen consumption in perfused livers from rats treated with alcohol in vivo [20].
  • Similarly, 1 micromol/l of the mitogen-activated protein kinase/ERK kinase 1/2 inhibitor PD098059 or 1 micromol/l of the l-type Ca(2+) channel blocker nimodipine prevented glucose- and IL-1beta-induced ERK activation, beta-cell apoptosis, and impaired function [21].

Anatomical context of Nimotop

  • We found that, contrary to current models, the degree of flagellar bending does not vary in proportion to the overall [Ca(2+)]i. Instead we propose a new model whereby flagella bending is increased by Ca(2+) flux through the nimodipine-sensitive pathway, and is unaffected by [Ca(2+)]i increases through alternative pathways [12].
  • The acrosome reaction is inhibited by Ca2+ channel antagonists, including verapamil, D600, and dihydropyridines such as nitrendipine, nimodipine, and nisoldipine [22].
  • It is postulated that the selective inhibition of the sustained tonic contraction of the basilar artery is due to a selective inhibition by nimodipine of calcium movement through ROCs in this vessel [23].
  • The selective inhibition of serotonin-induced contractions of rabbit cerebral vascular smooth muscle by calcium-antagonistic dihydropyridines. An investigation of the mechanism of action of nimodipine [23].
  • Effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow and histopathology after middle cerebral artery occlusion [24].

Associations of Nimotop with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Nimotop

  • When TRH was added after 100 nM nimodipine, an L channel blocker, the initial calcium burst was unaffected but the second phase was abolished [29].
  • A PKC inhibitor, GF109203X, and an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nimodipine, both partially reduced TRH-induced MAPK activation and PRL promoter activity [30].
  • In addition, a specific MEK1/MEK2 inhibitor, PD98059 (60 microM), reduced the GnRH and PMA responses whereas the L-type voltage-gated calcium channel agonist, +/- BayK 8644 (5 microM), and antagonist, nimodipine (250 nM), had no effect on GnRH responsiveness [31].
  • By contrast, nimodipine caused only a small reversal of the TRH-induced S-phase block, suggesting that TRH inhibits proliferation by a mechanism that differs at least in part from L-channel activation [32].
  • Blocking calcium influx with nimodipine or depleting intracellular calcium storage pools with thapsigargin each resulted in a partial suppression of GnRH-induced activation of Ca/CaMK II, and in combination, completely suppressed the Ca/CaMK II response to GnRH [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Nimotop


  1. Cerebral arterial spasm--a controlled trial of nimodipine in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Allen, G.S., Ahn, H.S., Preziosi, T.J., Battye, R., Boone, S.C., Boone, S.C., Chou, S.N., Kelly, D.L., Weir, B.K., Crabbe, R.A., Lavik, P.J., Rosenbloom, S.B., Dorsey, F.C., Ingram, C.R., Mellits, D.E., Bertsch, L.A., Boisvert, D.P., Hundley, M.B., Johnson, R.K., Strom, J.A., Transou, C.R. N. Engl. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  2. A controlled trial of nimodipine in acute ischemic stroke. Gelmers, H.J., Gorter, K., de Weerdt, C.J., Wiezer, H.J. N. Engl. J. Med. (1988) [Pubmed]
  3. Alcohol-induced spasms of cerebral blood vessels: relation to cerebrovascular accidents and sudden death. Altura, B.M., Altura, B.T., Gebrewold, A. Science (1983) [Pubmed]
  4. Nimodipine facilitates associative learning in aging rabbits. Deyo, R.A., Straube, K.T., Disterhoft, J.F. Science (1989) [Pubmed]
  5. Pharmacological basis for the use of nimodipine in central nervous system disorders. Scriabine, A., Schuurman, T., Traber, J. FASEB J. (1989) [Pubmed]
  6. Hyperventilation-induced cerebral ischemia in panic disorder and effect of nimodipine. Gibbs, D.M. The American journal of psychiatry. (1992) [Pubmed]
  7. Baseline cerebral hypermetabolism associated with carbamazepine response, and hypometabolism with nimodipine response in mood disorders. Ketter, T.A., Kimbrell, T.A., George, M.S., Willis, M.W., Benson, B.E., Danielson, A., Frye, M.A., Herscovitch, P., Post, R.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1999) [Pubmed]
  8. Cerestat and other NMDA antagonists in ischemic stroke. Lees, K.R. Neurology (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Nimodipine increases CSF somatostatin in affectively ill patients. Pazzaglia, P.J., George, M.S., Post, R.M., Rubinow, D.R., Davis, C.L. Neuropsychopharmacology (1995) [Pubmed]
  10. Potentiated necrosis of cultured cortical neurons by neurotrophins. Koh, J.Y., Gwag, B.J., Lobner, D., Choi, D.W. Science (1995) [Pubmed]
  11. Neuropsychological sequelae of cardiac arrest. Roine, R.O., Kajaste, S., Kaste, M. JAMA (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Real-time analysis of the role of Ca(2+) in flagellar movement and motility in single sea urchin sperm. Wood, C.D., Nishigaki, T., Furuta, T., Baba, S.A., Darszon, A. J. Cell Biol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  13. Nimodipine in patients with heart disease. Roine, R.O. Circulation (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Circumvention of vincristine and Adriamycin resistance in vitro and in vivo by calcium influx blockers. Tsuruo, T., Iida, H., Nojiri, M., Tsukagoshi, S., Sakurai, Y. Cancer Res. (1983) [Pubmed]
  15. Delayed treatment with nimodipine improves cerebral blood flow after complete cerebral ischemia in the dog. Milde, L.N., Milde, J.H., Michenfelder, J.D. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1986) [Pubmed]
  16. Effect of calcium antagonists on postischemic protein biosynthesis in gerbil brain. Xie, Y., Seo, K., Ishimaru, K., Hossmann, K.A. Stroke (1992) [Pubmed]
  17. Effect of nimodipine on canine cerebrovascular responses to 5-hydroxytryptamine and potassium chloride after exposure to blood. Tsuji, T., Cook, D.A. Stroke (1989) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacological types of calcium channels and their modulation by baclofen in cerebellar granules. Amico, C., Marchetti, C., Nobile, M., Usai, C. J. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  19. omega-Conotoxin block of N-type calcium channels in frog and rat sympathetic neurons. Boland, L.M., Morrill, J.A., Bean, B.P. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  20. Nimodipine, a dihydropyridine-type calcium channel blocker, prevents alcoholic hepatitis caused by chronic intragastric ethanol exposure in the rat. Iimuro, Y., Ikejima, K., Rose, M.L., Bradford, B.U., Thurman, R.G. Hepatology (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Glucose- and interleukin-1beta-induced beta-cell apoptosis requires Ca2+ influx and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activation and is prevented by a sulfonylurea receptor 1/inwardly rectifying K+ channel 6.2 (SUR/Kir6.2) selective potassium channel opener in human islets. Maedler, K., Størling, J., Sturis, J., Zuellig, R.A., Spinas, G.A., Arkhammar, P.O., Mandrup-Poulsen, T., Donath, M.Y. Diabetes (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Calcium channel antagonists inhibit the acrosome reaction and bind to plasma membranes of sea urchin sperm. Kazazoglou, T., Schackmann, R.W., Fosset, M., Shapiro, B.M. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1985) [Pubmed]
  23. The selective inhibition of serotonin-induced contractions of rabbit cerebral vascular smooth muscle by calcium-antagonistic dihydropyridines. An investigation of the mechanism of action of nimodipine. Towart, R. Circ. Res. (1981) [Pubmed]
  24. Effect of pretreatment with the calcium antagonist nimodipine on local cerebral blood flow and histopathology after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Mohamed, A.A., Gotoh, O., Graham, D.I., Osborne, K.A., McCulloch, J., Mendelow, A.D., Teasdale, G.M., Harper, A.M. Ann. Neurol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  25. Two pyridine analogues with more effective ability to reverse multidrug resistance and with lower calcium channel blocking activity than their dihydropyridine counterparts. Shudo, N., Mizoguchi, T., Kiyosue, T., Arita, M., Yoshimura, A., Seto, K., Sakoda, R., Akiyama, S. Cancer Res. (1990) [Pubmed]
  26. Distribution of dihydropyridine and omega-conotoxin-sensitive calcium currents in acutely isolated rat and frog sensory neuron somata: diameter-dependent L channel expression in frog. Scroggs, R.S., Fox, A.P. J. Neurosci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  27. Conformational changes in the junctional foot protein/Ca2+ release channel mediate depolarization-induced Ca2+ release from sarcoplasmic reticulum. Yano, M., el-Hayek, R., Ikemoto, N. J. Biol. Chem. (1995) [Pubmed]
  28. Spin-trapping and antioxidant properties of illuminated and nonilluminated nifedipine and nimodipine in heart homogenate and model system. Misík, V., Stasko, A., Gergeĺ, D., Ondrias, K. Mol. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  29. Characterization of the calcium response to thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) in cells transfected with TRH receptor complementary DNA: importance of voltage-sensitive calcium channels. Li, P., Thaw, C.N., Sempowski, G.D., Gershengorn, M.C., Hinkle, P.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. A role for the mitogen-activated protein kinase in mediating the ability of thyrotropin-releasing hormone to stimulate the prolactin promoter. Wang, Y.H., Maurer, R.A. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  31. Homologous regulation of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone receptor gene is partially mediated by protein kinase C activation of an activator protein-1 element. White, B.R., Duval, D.L., Mulvaney, J.M., Roberson, M.S., Clay, C.M. Mol. Endocrinol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Voltage-dependent calcium channels regulate GH4 pituitary cell proliferation at two stages of the cell cycle. Ramsdell, J.S. J. Cell. Physiol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. The calcium component of gonadotropin-releasing hormone-stimulated luteinizing hormone subunit gene transcription is mediated by calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II. Haisenleder, D.J., Ferris, H.A., Shupnik, M.A. Endocrinology (2003) [Pubmed]
  34. Nimodipine after resuscitation from out-of-hospital ventricular fibrillation. A placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized trial. Roine, R.O., Kaste, M., Kinnunen, A., Nikki, P., Sarna, S., Kajaste, S. JAMA (1990) [Pubmed]
  35. Analgesia with epidural nimodipine. Filos, K.S., Goudas, L.C., Patroni, O., Tassoudis, V. Lancet (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Hypoglycaemic brain damage: effect of a dihydropyridine calcium channel antagonist in rats. Auer, R.N., Anderson, L.G. Diabetologia (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of nimodipine on glucose metabolism in the course of ischemic stroke. Holthoff, V., Beil, C., Hartmann-Klosterkötter, U., Neveling, M., Pawlik, G., Herholz, K., Heiss, W.D. Stroke (1990) [Pubmed]
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