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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Extracellular ATP has stimulatory effects on the expression and release of IL-6 via purinergic receptors in normal human epidermal keratinocytes.

Extracellular ATP regulates proliferation and differentiation, functioning as an important messenger via purinergic (P2) receptors in keratinocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of ATP on cytokine production in cultured normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs). Adenosine 5'-O-(3-thiotriphosphate) (ATPgammaS), adenosine 5'-O-2-(thio)diphosphate (ADPbetaS), ADP, ATP, and 2', 3'-O-(4-benzoyl-benzoyl) ATP (BzATP) significantly increased the release of IL-6. The P2 antagonists, suramin-, reactive blue 2-, and periodate-oxidized ATP, inhibited ATP-induced IL-6 release, whereas pyridoxal-phosphate-6-azophenyl-2',4'-disulfonic acid, adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phosphate, 1-[N,O-bis(1,5-isoquinolinesulfonyl)-N-methyl-L-tyrosyl]-4-phenylpiperazine, and pertussis toxin did not. SQ22563, an adenylate cyclase inhibitor, inhibited ATP-induced IL-6 release. ATPgammaS, ADPbetaS, ATP, and BzATP significantly increased the intracellular cAMP content. Reverse transcription-PCR showed expression of P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y11, P2Y12, P2Y13, P2X1, P2X4, P2X5, P2X6, and P2X7 receptor subtypes. Additionally, UVB radiation evoked the release of ATP from NHEKs. The release of IL-6 and the expression of IL-6 mRNA were increased after UVB radiation, and these increases were also inhibited by P2 receptor antagonists. These results suggest that cAMP-generating P2Y receptors are likely functional in ATP-induced IL-6 production in NHEKs. Furthermore, in UVB-radiated cells, we note the possibility that P2 receptor antagonists may reduce skin inflammation.[1]


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