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Chemical Compound Review

Germanin     8-[[4-methyl-3-[[3-[[3-[[2- methyl-5-[(4,6...

Synonyms: Antrypol, Belganyl, Moranil, Naganin, Naganol, ...
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Disease relevance of Naganol

  • Heparin, highly sulfated heparan sulfate, and the polysulfonate pharmaceutical Suramin effectively prevented dengue virus infection of target cells, indicating that the envelope protein-target cell receptor interaction is a critical determinant of infectivity [1].
  • Here we show that suramin inhibits apoptosis induced through death receptors in hepatoma and lymphoma cells [2].
  • Suramin also shows similar effects in in vivo models: apoptotic liver damage induced by CD95 stimulation and endotoxic shock mediated by tumor-necrosis factor (TNF) are inhibited in mice, but necrotic liver damage is not inhibited in a rat model of liver transplantation [2].
  • Suramin has now been found to block in vitro the infectivity and cytopathic effect of HTLV-III at doses that are clinically attainable in human beings [3].
  • Suramin is a drug used in the therapy of Rhodesian trypanosomiasis and onchocerciasis, and it is known to inhibit the reverse transcriptase of a number of retroviruses [3].

Psychiatry related information on Naganol

  • Three patients, who received all 18 doses of suramin per protocol, developed severe, but not dose-limiting, malaise, fatigue, and lethargy [4].
  • Effects of suramin on hippocampal apyrase activity and inhibitory avoidance learning of rats [5].
  • Intrahippocampal infusion of suramin (0.01, 0.1, 1, and 10 microg) immediately posttraining, in a dose-dependent effect, significantly reduced the response latency during the retention test applied 24 h after the rats received step-down inhibitory avoidance training [5].
  • Our results indicate that the polysulfonated naphthylurea suramin, a "non-specific drug" that interferes with multiple cellular proteins, inhibits neointimal formation in rabbit iliac arteries after balloon-catheter injury administered throughout the critical period of several weeks after the procedure [6].

High impact information on Naganol


Chemical compound and disease context of Naganol


Biological context of Naganol


Anatomical context of Naganol


Associations of Naganol with other chemical compounds

  • Since suramin potently blocks tyrosine phosphorylation induced by platelet-derived growth factor but can activate the growth pathway regulated by the EGFR, biological responses of tumor cells to suramin treatment may differ dramatically [19].
  • All patients were taking flutamide at the time of entry, and previous treatments with medical or surgical castration, flutamide, suramin, and hydrocortisone had failed in all of these patients [11].
  • In the androgen-sensitive LNCaP cells, however, transferrin had limited ability to block the inhibitory activity of suramin [23].
  • Maximal inhibition was obtained after 5 days of suramin treatment, and inhibition either was partially reversed by E2, IGF-I, and IGF-II or was not reversible by EGF following removal of drug [24].
  • PSA mRNA expression was assessed by northern blot analysis in cells treated with either 250 microgram/mL suramin, 400 ng/mL dihydrotestosterone (DHT) (positive control), or 0.5-75 microgram/mL hydrocortisone (to mimic the clinical use of hydrocortisone during suramin treatment to compensate for the loss of adrenocortical function) [25].
  • This effect was significantly enhanced when suramin was combined with hyperoxia [26].
  • When lysine was introduced into the mouse receptor, the sensitivity to block by suramin and NF449 was much increased for E138K, but not for Q111K, Q127K, or N148K [27].

Gene context of Naganol


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Naganol


  1. Dengue virus infectivity depends on envelope protein binding to target cell heparan sulfate. Chen, Y., Maguire, T., Hileman, R.E., Fromm, J.R., Esko, J.D., Linhardt, R.J., Marks, R.M. Nat. Med. (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Suramin inhibits death receptor-induced apoptosis in vitro and fulminant apoptotic liver damage in mice. Eichhorst, S.T., Krueger, A., Müerköster, S., Fas, S.C., Golks, A., Gruetzner, U., Schubert, L., Opelz, C., Bilzer, M., Gerbes, A.L., Krammer, P.H. Nat. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  3. Suramin protection of T cells in vitro against infectivity and cytopathic effect of HTLV-III. Mitsuya, H., Popovic, M., Yarchoan, R., Matsushita, S., Gallo, R.C., Broder, S. Science (1984) [Pubmed]
  4. Development and validation of a pharmacokinetically based fixed dosing scheme for suramin. Reyno, L.M., Egorin, M.J., Eisenberger, M.A., Sinibaldi, V.J., Zuhowski, E.G., Sridhara, R. J. Clin. Oncol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of suramin on hippocampal apyrase activity and inhibitory avoidance learning of rats. Bonan, C.D., Roesler, R., Quevedo, J., Battastini, A.M., Izquierdo, I., Sarkis, J.J. Pharmacol. Biochem. Behav. (1999) [Pubmed]
  6. Inhibitory mechanisms by which suramin may attenuate neointimal formation after balloon angioplasty. Gray, T.J., Strauss, B.H., Hinek, A. J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Involvement of growth factor receptors in the mammalian UVC response. Sachsenmaier, C., Radler-Pohl, A., Zinck, R., Nordheim, A., Herrlich, P., Rahmsdorf, H.J. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Interference with normal phagosome-lysosome fusion in macrophages, using ingested yeast cells and suramin. Hart, P.D., Young, M.R. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  9. Suramin therapy in AIDS and related disorders. Report of the US Suramin Working Group. Cheson, B.D., Levine, A.M., Mildvan, D., Kaplan, L.D., Wolfe, P., Rios, A., Groopman, J.E., Gill, P., Volberding, P.A., Poiesz, B.J. JAMA (1987) [Pubmed]
  10. Suramin rapidly alters cellular tyrosine phosphorylation in prostate cancer cell lines. Sartor, O., McLellan, C.A., Myers, C.E., Borner, M.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  11. Surprising activity of flutamide withdrawal, when combined with aminoglutethimide, in treatment of "hormone-refractory" prostate cancer. Sartor, O., Cooper, M., Weinberger, M., Headlee, D., Thibault, A., Tompkins, A., Steinberg, S., Figg, W.D., Linehan, W.M., Myers, C.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1994) [Pubmed]
  12. Synergistic activity of suramin with tumor necrosis factor alpha and doxorubicin on human prostate cancer cell lines. Fruehauf, J.P., Myers, C.E., Sinha, B.K. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  13. Suramin, an anticancer and angiosuppressive agent, inhibits endothelial cell binding of basic fibroblast growth factor, migration, proliferation, and induction of urokinase-type plasminogen activator. Takano, S., Gately, S., Neville, M.E., Herblin, W.F., Gross, J.L., Engelhard, H., Perricone, M., Eidsvoog, K., Brem, S. Cancer Res. (1994) [Pubmed]
  14. Androgen deprivation and four courses of fixed-schedule suramin treatment in patients with newly diagnosed metastatic prostate cancer: A Southwest Oncology Group Study. Hussain, M., Fisher, E.I., Petrylak, D.P., O'Connor, J., Wood, D.P., Small, E.J., Eisenberger, M.A., Crawford, E.D. J. Clin. Oncol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  15. Selective growth arrest and phenotypic reversion of prostate cancer cells in vitro by nontoxic pharmacological concentrations of phenylacetate. Samid, D., Shack, S., Myers, C.E. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  16. Suramin blockade of insulinlike growth factor I-stimulated proliferation of human osteosarcoma cells. Pollak, M., Richard, M. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Modulation of platelet-derived growth factor receptor expression in microvascular endothelial cells during in vitro angiogenesis. Marx, M., Perlmutter, R.A., Madri, J.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1994) [Pubmed]
  18. Effects of suramin on HTLV-III/LAV infection presenting as Kaposi's sarcoma or AIDS-related complex: clinical pharmacology and suppression of virus replication in vivo. Broder, S., Yarchoan, R., Collins, J.M., Lane, H.C., Markham, P.D., Klecker, R.W., Redfield, R.R., Mitsuya, H., Hoth, D.F., Gelmann, E. Lancet (1985) [Pubmed]
  19. Suramin, an experimental chemotherapeutic drug, activates the receptor for epidermal growth factor and promotes growth of certain malignant cells. Cardinali, M., Sartor, O., Robbins, K.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of suramin on in vitro growth of fresh human tumors. Taylor, C.W., Lui, R., Fanta, P., Salmon, S.E. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  21. Purinergic fast excitatory postsynaptic potentials in myenteric neurons of guinea pig: distribution and pharmacology. LePard, K.J., Messori, E., Galligan, J.J. Gastroenterology (1997) [Pubmed]
  22. Suramin and eosinophil degranulation and vacuolation in onchocerciasis. Newsome, F. Lancet (1987) [Pubmed]
  23. Reversal by transferrin of growth-inhibitory effect of suramin on hormone-refractory human prostate cancer cells. Donat, S.M., Powell, C.T., Israeli, R.S., Fair, W.R., Heston, W.D. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Inhibition of breast cancer growth by suramin. Vignon, F., Prebois, C., Rochefort, H. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1992) [Pubmed]
  25. Suramin-induced decrease in prostate-specific antigen expression with no effect on tumor growth in the LNCaP model of human prostate cancer. Thalmann, G.N., Sikes, R.A., Chang, S.M., Johnston, D.A., von Eschenbach, A.C., Chung, L.W. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Suramin induces and enhances apoptosis in a model of hyperoxia-induced oligodendrocyte injury. Stark, S., Schuller, A., Sifringer, M., Gerstner, B., Brehmer, F., Weber, S., Altmann, R., Obladen, M., Buhrer, C., Felderhoff-Mueser, U. Neurotox. Res (2008) [Pubmed]
  27. Ectodomain lysines and suramin block of P2X1 receptors. Sim, J.A., Broomhead, H.E., North, R.A. J. Biol. Chem. (2008) [Pubmed]
  28. Transformation of NIH 3T3 cells with basic fibroblast growth factor or the hst/K-fgf oncogene causes downregulation of the fibroblast growth factor receptor: reversal of morphological transformation and restoration of receptor number by suramin. Moscatelli, D., Quarto, N. J. Cell Biol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  29. Human neutrophil peptides induce interleukin-8 production through the P2Y6 signaling pathway. Khine, A.A., Del Sorbo, L., Vaschetto, R., Voglis, S., Tullis, E., Slutsky, A.S., Downey, G.P., Zhang, H. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
  30. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation by butylated hydroxytoluene hydroperoxide: implications for cellular survival and tumor promotion. Guyton, K.Z., Gorospe, M., Kensler, T.W., Holbrook, N.J. Cancer Res. (1996) [Pubmed]
  31. Suramin, an active drug for prostate cancer: interim observations in a phase I trial. Eisenberger, M.A., Reyno, L.M., Jodrell, D.I., Sinibaldi, V.J., Tkaczuk, K.H., Sridhara, R., Zuhowski, E.G., Lowitt, M.H., Jacobs, S.C., Egorin, M.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1993) [Pubmed]
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