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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Analysis of chicken cytokine and chemokine gene expression following Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella infections.

The expression levels of mRNA encoding a panel of 28 chicken cytokines and chemokines were quantified in intestinal lymphocytes following Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella primary and secondary infections. Compared with uninfected controls, transcripts of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFN-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-17 were increased up to 2020-fold following primary infection. By contrast, following secondary infection by either microorganism, pro-inflammatory mRNAs levels were relatively unchanged (</=20-fold). Transcripts encoding the Th1 and Th1 regulatory cytokines IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-15, IL-16, and IL-18 were uniformly increased 14-2471-fold after E. acervulina primary infection, but either unchanged (IL-15, IL-16, IL-18), increased (IFN-gamma, IL-10, IL-12), or decreased (IL-2) following E. tenella primary infection. Following secondary infections, Th1 cytokine mRNA levels were relatively unchanged, with the exception of IL-12 which was increased 1.5x10(5)-fold after E. acervulina and decreased 5.1x10(4)-fold after E. tenella infection. Transcripts for the Th2 or Th2 regulatory cytokines IL-3 and GM-CSF were increased up to 327-fold following primary or secondary infection with both parasites, while IL-4 and IL-13 mRNAs were decreased 25- to 2x10(5)-fold after primary or secondary infection. The dynamics of chicken chemokine expression revealed modest changes (<100-fold) following primary or secondary infection except for lymphotactin. When lymphocyte subpopulations were similarly analyzed, IFN-gamma, IL-2, IL-3, IL-15, and MIF were most highly increased in TCR2(+) cells following E. acervulina infection, while TCR1(+) cells only expressed high levels of IL-16 following E. tenella infection. In contrast, CD4(+) cells only expressed highest levels of IL-10 after E. acervulina infection, whereas these cells produced abundant transcripts for IFN-gamma, IL-3, IL-15, and MIF after E. tenella infection. We conclude that coccidiosis induces a diverse and robust primary cytokine/chemokine response, but a more subdued secondary response.[1]


  1. Analysis of chicken cytokine and chemokine gene expression following Eimeria acervulina and Eimeria tenella infections. Hong, Y.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Lee, S.H., Dalloul, R.A., Lillehoj, E.P. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
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