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Gene Review

CCL1  -  chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 1

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: CCLi6, chemokine
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Disease relevance of LOC395552


Psychiatry related information on LOC395552

  • Because glial inflammation is a component of Alzheimer disease (AD) and TNFalpha is overexpressed in AD brains, we investigated possible alterations of the cytokine-dependent pathway in PDAPP mice, a transgenic model of AD [6].

High impact information on LOC395552

  • Induction of angiogenesis by a tumor or cytokine promotes vascular cell entry into the cell cycle and expression of integrin alpha v beta 3 [7].
  • This study demonstrates that one of the viral genes necessary for this inhibition, the crmA gene (a cytokine response modifier gene), encodes a serpin that is a specific inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme [8].
  • Bcl-2 was able to rescue differentiating cells expressing dnStat5 from apoptosis, suggesting that during cytokine-dependent differentiation the main function of the protein is to ensure cell survival [9].
  • Taken together, our findings suggest that Stat5 may promote cytokine-dependent survival and proliferation of differentiating myeloid progenitor cells in stress or pathological situations, such as inflammation [9].
  • To determine the role of the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-beta in B cells, we generated mice lacking the TGF-beta receptor (TbetaR) type II selectively in this cell type through conditional mutagenesis (Cre/loxP) [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of LOC395552

  • We studied the effects of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on in vivo cytokine mRNA levels in chickens, and investigated whether these levels could be altered by different nutrients [11].
  • Treatment of cultured cardiomyocytes and retinal and ciliary ganglion neurons with retinoic acid resulted in increased expression of receptors for the neuropoietic cytokine, CNTF [12].

Biological context of LOC395552

  • However, cell motility required cytokine stimulation, which caused redistribution of alpha-actinin to membrane-adhesive sites containing alpha v beta 5 [5].
  • In culture, the vascular cytokine endothelin converts embryonic myocytes to Purkinje cells, implying that selection of conduction phenotype may be mediated by an instructive cue from arteries [13].
  • However, we found that the SH2 domain is structurally important for cytokine receptor binding and surface expression of the OSMR [14].
  • In this study we demonstrated that a conserved YxKxHxxxRP motif (aa 345-354) adjacent to the C-terminal zinc finger domain of GATA3 plays a critical in its DNA binding and functions, including transcriptional activity, the ability to induce chromatin remodeling of the Th2 cytokine gene loci, and Th2 cell differentiation [15].
  • Consideration of the phenotypes of these mice suggests that the factor responsible for lens cell proliferation in vivo may be a growth factor or cytokine that has not yet been described [16].

Anatomical context of LOC395552

  • NFAT and SRF are important in the regulation of proliferation and cytokine production in lymphocytes [17].
  • This cytokine also inhibits embryonic angiogenesis in the chick chorioallantoic membrane assay [18].
  • The cytolytic activity of natural killer cells and various cytokine responses are altered [19].
  • To date, only the vascular cytokine endothelin (ET) has been demonstrated to induce embryonic cardiomyocytes to differentiate into Purkinje fibers [20].
  • Our results demonstrate that there are several ML peptides that bind well to MHC but are totally nonimmunogenic when tested for proliferative T cell response and cytokine secretion: a subset of these peptides presumably represent the originally dominant self-determinants of ML, which have rendered the T cells tolerant during thymic selection [21].

Associations of LOC395552 with chemical compounds


Regulatory relationships of LOC395552


Other interactions of LOC395552

  • The bacterial TLR agonists (PAM, PGN, LPS, and FGN) all induced an up-regulation of expression of mRNA of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta, IL-6, and IL-8; whereas both poly(I:C) and LOX induced a down-regulation of these cytokine mRNAs [29].
  • In contrast, IFN-alpha, TGF-beta4, and K60 transcripts showed no increased expression, and only the level of the Th2 cytokine IL-13 was increased following secondary E. maxima infection [30].
  • Ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) is a neuropoietic cytokine that was identified, purified, and cloned based on its neurotrophic activity on cultured chick ciliary ganglion neurons [31].
  • The sequence of the chicken interferon-gamma (ifn-gamma) gene was determined, one of the first non-mammalian cytokine gene structures to be elucidated [32].
  • These results show that this cytokine is chicken IL8 and not GROalpha [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of LOC395552

  • To gain further insights into the cytokine network of birds, we used polymerase chain reaction technology to clone a cDNA that codes for a chicken homolog of the interferon-induced guanylate-binding proteins (GBPs) [34].
  • The production of cytokine mRNAs, in addition to viral DNA, was quantified by real-time quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) (cytokines) or PCR (virus) in splenocytes during the course of Marek's disease virus (MDV) infection in four inbred chicken lines: two resistant (lines 6(1) and N) and two susceptible (lines 7(2) and P) [35].
  • Cooperation between CD4(+) T cells can enhance the response and modulate the cytokine profile, and defining these parameters has become a major issue for multivalent-vaccine strategies.We explored cooperation using adoptive transfer of two populations of TCR transgenic T cells of different specificity [36].
  • Inhibition of angiogenesis and breast cancer xenograft tumor growth by VEGI, a novel cytokine of the TNF superfamily [37].
  • Since TNF-alpha is a pro-inflammatory cytokine with apoptotic potency, and elevated levels are found in the gingival sulcus during orthodontic tooth movement, we investigated if mechanical loading by pulsating fluid flow affects TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in chicken osteocytes, osteoblasts, and periosteal fibroblasts [38].


  1. Class switch recombination and hypermutation require activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID), a potential RNA editing enzyme. Muramatsu, M., Kinoshita, K., Fagarasan, S., Yamada, S., Shinkai, Y., Honjo, T. Cell (2000) [Pubmed]
  2. Prevention of vertebrate neuronal death by the crmA gene. Gagliardini, V., Fernandez, P.A., Lee, R.K., Drexler, H.C., Rotello, R.J., Fishman, M.C., Yuan, J. Science (1994) [Pubmed]
  3. Novel mechanism of C/EBP beta (NF-M) transcriptional control: activation through derepression. Kowenz-Leutz, E., Twamley, G., Ansieau, S., Leutz, A. Genes Dev. (1994) [Pubmed]
  4. Severe inflammatory arthritis and lymphadenopathy in the absence of TNF. Campbell, I.K., O'Donnell, K., Lawlor, K.E., Wicks, I.P. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  5. Insulin-like growth factor receptor cooperates with integrin alpha v beta 5 to promote tumor cell dissemination in vivo. Brooks, P.C., Klemke, R.L., Schon, S., Lewis, J.M., Schwartz, M.A., Cheresh, D.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  6. Defective tumor necrosis factor-alpha-dependent control of astrocyte glutamate release in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer disease. Rossi, D., Brambilla, L., Valori, C.F., Crugnola, A., Giaccone, G., Capobianco, R., Mangieri, M., Kingston, A.E., Bloc, A., Bezzi, P., Volterra, A. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. Integrin alpha v beta 3 antagonists promote tumor regression by inducing apoptosis of angiogenic blood vessels. Brooks, P.C., Montgomery, A.M., Rosenfeld, M., Reisfeld, R.A., Hu, T., Klier, G., Cheresh, D.A. Cell (1994) [Pubmed]
  8. Viral inhibition of inflammation: cowpox virus encodes an inhibitor of the interleukin-1 beta converting enzyme. Ray, C.A., Black, R.A., Kronheim, S.R., Greenstreet, T.A., Sleath, P.R., Salvesen, G.S., Pickup, D.J. Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  9. Antiapoptotic activity of Stat5 required during terminal stages of myeloid differentiation. Kieslinger, M., Woldman, I., Moriggl, R., Hofmann, J., Marine, J.C., Ihle, J.N., Beug, H., Decker, T. Genes Dev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  10. TGF-beta receptor controls B cell responsiveness and induction of IgA in vivo. Cazac, B.B., Roes, J. Immunity (2000) [Pubmed]
  11. Early in vivo cytokine genes expression in chickens after challenge with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide and modulation by dietary n--3 polyunsaturated fatty acids. Sijben, J.W., Klasing, K.C., Schrama, J.W., Parmentier, H.K., van der Poel, J.J., Savelkoul, H.F., Kaiser, P. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  12. Retinoic acid up-regulates ciliary neurotrophic factor receptors in cultured chick neurons and cardiomyocytes. Wang, X., Halvorsen, S.W. Neurosci. Lett. (1998) [Pubmed]
  13. Induction of Purkinje fiber differentiation by coronary arterialization. Hyer, J., Johansen, M., Prasad, A., Wessels, A., Kirby, M.L., Gourdie, R.G., Mikawa, T. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1999) [Pubmed]
  14. The Jak1 SH2 domain does not fulfill a classical SH2 function in Jak/STAT signaling but plays a structural role for receptor interaction and up-regulation of receptor surface expression. Radtke, S., Haan, S., Jörissen, A., Hermanns, H.M., Diefenbach, S., Smyczek, T., Schmitz-Vandeleur, H., Heinrich, P.C., Behrmann, I., Haan, C. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  15. Critical YxKxHxxxRP Motif in the C-Terminal Region of GATA3 for Its DNA Binding and Function. Shinnakasu, R., Yamashita, M., Shinoda, K., Endo, Y., Hosokawa, H., Hasegawa, A., Ikemizu, S., Nakayama, T. J. Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  16. Activation of the Jak-STAT-signaling pathway in embryonic lens cells. Potts, J.D., Kornacker, S., Beebe, D.C. Dev. Biol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  17. Differential regulation of NFAT and SRF by the B cell receptor via a PLCgamma-Ca(2+)-dependent pathway. Hao, S., Kurosaki, T., August, A. EMBO J. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Interleukin-18 acts as an angiogenesis and tumor suppressor. Cao, R., Farnebo, J., Kurimoto, M., Cao, Y. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. Vitamin A and retinoids in antiviral responses. Ross, A.C., Stephensen, C.B. FASEB J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Competency of embryonic cardiomyocytes to undergo Purkinje fiber differentiation is regulated by endothelin receptor expression. Kanzawa, N., Poma, C.P., Takebayashi-Suzuki, K., Diaz, K.G., Layliev, J., Mikawa, T. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. The self-directed T cell repertoire against mouse lysozyme reflects the influence of the hierarchy of its own determinants and can be engaged by a foreign lysozyme. Moudgil, K.D., Southwood, S., Ametani, A., Kim, K., Sette, A., Sercarz, E.E. J. Immunol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  22. Interleukins 1 and 3 stimulate anion secretion in chicken intestine. Chang, E.B., Musch, M.W., Mayer, L. Gastroenterology (1990) [Pubmed]
  23. Stat 5b and the orphan nuclear receptors regulate expression of the alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2M) gene in rat ovarian granulosa cells. Dajee, M., Fey, G.H., Richards, J.S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Molecular and functional characterization of turkey interferon. Suresh, M., Karaca, K., Foster, D., Sharma, J.M. J. Virol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  25. Toll-like receptor agonists stimulate differential functional activation and cytokine and chemokine gene expression in heterophils isolated from chickens with differential innate responses. Kogut, M.H., Swaggerty, C., He, H., Pevzner, I., Kaiser, P. Microbes Infect. (2006) [Pubmed]
  26. Follicular stage-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced hen granulosa cell integrin production and survival in the presence of transforming growth factor alpha in vitro. Soboloff, J., Sasaki, H., Tsang, B.K. Biol. Reprod. (2001) [Pubmed]
  27. IFN-gamma priming of chicken heterophils upregulates the expression of proinflammatory and Th1 cytokine mRNA following receptor-mediated phagocytosis of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis. Kogut, M.H., Rothwell, L., Kaiser, P. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2005) [Pubmed]
  28. Effects of dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids on in vivo splenic cytokine mRNA expression in layer chicks immunized with Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide. Sijben, J.W., Schrama, J.W., Parmentier, H.K., van der Poel, J.J., Klasing, K.C. Poult. Sci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  29. Expression and function of Toll-like receptors in chicken heterophils. Kogut, M.H., Iqbal, M., He, H., Philbin, V., Kaiser, P., Smith, A. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  30. Changes in immune-related gene expression and intestinal lymphocyte subpopulations following Eimeria maxima infection of chickens. Hong, Y.H., Lillehoj, H.S., Lillehoj, E.P., Lee, S.H. Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Ciliary neurotrophic factor stimulates the phosphorylation of two forms of STAT3 in chick ciliary ganglion neurons. Wishingrad, M.A., Koshlukova, S., Halvorsen, S.W. J. Biol. Chem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  32. Structure of the chicken interferon-gamma gene, and comparison to mammalian homologues. Kaiser, P., Wain, H.M., Rothwell, L. Gene (1998) [Pubmed]
  33. The chicken 9E3/CEF4 CXC chemokine is the avian orthologue of IL8 and maps to chicken chromosome 4 syntenic with genes flanking the mammalian chemokine cluster. Kaiser, P., Hughes, S., Bumstead, N. Immunogenetics (1999) [Pubmed]
  34. Chicken guanylate-binding protein. Conservation of GTPase activity and induction by cytokines. Schwemmle, M., Kaspers, B., Irion, A., Staeheli, P., Schultz, U. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  35. Differential cytokine responses following Marek's disease virus infection of chickens differing in resistance to Marek's disease. Kaiser, P., Underwood, G., Davison, F. J. Virol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. Instruction of naive CD4+ T cells by polarized CD4+ T cells within dendritic cell clusters. Creusot, R.J., Biswas, J.S., Thomsen, L.L., Tite, J.P., Mitchison, N.A., Chain, B.M. Eur. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  37. Inhibition of angiogenesis and breast cancer xenograft tumor growth by VEGI, a novel cytokine of the TNF superfamily. Zhai, Y., Yu, J., Iruela-Arispe, L., Huang, W.Q., Wang, Z., Hayes, A.J., Lu, J., Jiang, G., Rojas, L., Lippman, M.E., Ni, J., Yu, G.L., Li, L.Y. Int. J. Cancer (1999) [Pubmed]
  38. Fluid Shear Stress Inhibits TNF{alpha}-induced Osteocyte Apoptosis. Tan, S.D., Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M., Semeins, C.M., Bronckers, A.L., Maltha, J.C., Von den Hoff, J.W., Everts, V., Klein-Nulend, J. J. Dent. Res. (2006) [Pubmed]
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