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Gene Review

IL18  -  interleukin 18 (interferon-gamma-inducing...

Gallus gallus

Synonyms: ChIL-18, IL-18
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Disease relevance of IL-18

  • In cell culture, murine T241 fibrosarcoma cells are insensitive to recombinant IL-18 at concentrations that significantly inhibit endothelial cell proliferation [1].
  • Systemic and intralesional administrations of IL-18 produce a significant suppression of the growth of murine T241 fibrosarcoma in syngeneic C57Bl6/J and immunodeficient SCID mice [1].
  • In vivo, IL-18 is sufficiently potent to suppress the fibroblast growth factor-induced corneal neovascularization by systemic administration in mice [1].
  • Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox vaccines coexpressing HA of AIV H5N1 and chicken IL18 [2].
  • The rFPV-H5-H7-IL18 vaccinated group displayed significantly increased weight gain relative to the rFPV-H5HA group [2].

High impact information on IL-18

  • In this study, we characterize a Th1-like regulatory system focusing on the IL-18-regulated IFN-gamma secretion [3].
  • In contrast, PBL were unresponsive to IL-18 in the presence or absence of macrophages, but IFN-gamma secretion was stimulated by suboptimal anti-TCR cross-linking combined with IL-18 [3].
  • Both cytokines activated the splenocytes as demonstrated by increased size and MHC class II Ag up-regulation in the case of IL-18 [3].
  • Using real-time quantitative RT-PCR, we characterized the expression of IFN-gamma, IL-1beta, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, and IL-18 in thyroids from OS birds and control CB line birds, both in the embryo just before hatch (embryonic day 20) and at 3 and 5 days posthatch [4].
  • Predicted proteins with putative functions involving immune evasion included eight natural killer cell receptors, four CC chemokines, three G-protein-coupled receptors, two beta nerve growth factors, transforming growth factor beta, interleukin-18-binding protein, semaphorin, and five serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins) [5].

Chemical compound and disease context of IL-18


Biological context of IL-18


Anatomical context of IL-18

  • In addition, splenic macrophages were activated and had temporarily increased levels of mRNA transcripts of pro-inflammatory mediators, including IL-1beta, IL-6, IL-18, and iNOS [10].
  • To characterize the intracellular distribution of ChIL-18, ChIL-18-F and ChIL-18-M were each fused to the enhanced green fluorescent protein gene, and expressed in Vero cells [11].
  • Nitric oxide inducing function and intracellular movement of chicken interleukin-18 in cultured cells [11].
  • IL-18 stimulates the proliferation and IFN-gamma release of CD4+ T cells in the chicken: conservation of a Th1-like system in a nonmammalian species [3].
  • Breed effect was significant (P<0.05) for CXCLi2, IL-10, IL-12alpha, and CCLi2 mRNA expression in the spleen, and for IL-12alpha, IL-12beta, IL-18, and CCLi2 mRNA expression in the cecum [12].

Other interactions of IL-18

  • Compared to unvaccinated infected chickens, vaccinated protected birds had lower expression of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10 and IL-18 genes in spleen [13].
  • Heterophils from SE-resistant chickens (A and D) had significantly higher levels of pro-inflammatory cytokine (interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and IL-18) mRNA expression upon treatment with all agonists compared to heterophils from SE-susceptible lines (B and C) [14].
  • In B19-2D8 cells, cytoplasmically stored interferon-gamma is quickly secreted in response to interleukin-18 exposure [15].
  • We now describe a sensitive bioassay that is based on interleukin-18-induced release of interferon (IFN)-gamma by a permanent chicken cell line [15].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of IL-18


  1. Interleukin-18 acts as an angiogenesis and tumor suppressor. Cao, R., Farnebo, J., Kurimoto, M., Cao, Y. FASEB J. (1999) [Pubmed]
  2. Construction and immunogenicity of recombinant fowlpox vaccines coexpressing HA of AIV H5N1 and chicken IL18. Mingxiao, M., Ningyi, J., Zhenguo, W., Ruilin, W., Dongliang, F., Min, Z., Gefen, Y., Chang, L., Leili, J., Kuoshi, J., Yingjiu, Z. Vaccine (2006) [Pubmed]
  3. IL-18 stimulates the proliferation and IFN-gamma release of CD4+ T cells in the chicken: conservation of a Th1-like system in a nonmammalian species. Göbel, T.W., Schneider, K., Schaerer, B., Mejri, I., Puehler, F., Weigend, S., Staeheli, P., Kaspers, B. J. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  4. A role for IL-15 in driving the onset of spontaneous autoimmune thyroiditis? Kaiser, P., Rothwell, L., Vasícek, D., Hala, K. J. Immunol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  5. The genome of fowlpox virus. Afonso, C.L., Tulman, E.R., Lu, Z., Zsak, L., Kutish, G.F., Rock, D.L. J. Virol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  6. Potentiation of humoral immune responses to vaccine antigens by recombinant chicken IL-18 (rChIL-18). Degen, W.G., van Zuilekom, H.I., Scholtes, N.C., van Daal, N., Schijns, V.E. Vaccine (2005) [Pubmed]
  7. cDNA cloning of biologically active chicken interleukin-18. Schneider, K., Puehler, F., Baeuerle, D., Elvers, S., Staeheli, P., Kaspers, B., Weining, K.C. J. Interferon Cytokine Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  8. Priming by recombinant chicken interleukin-2 induces selective expression of IL-8 and IL-18 mRNA in chicken heterophils during receptor-mediated phagocytosis of opsonized and nonopsonized Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis. Kogut, M.H., Rothwell, L., Kaiser, P. Mol. Immunol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  9. Cloning and sequencing of Indian water buffalo interleukin-18 cDNA. Chaudhury, P., Bera, B.C. International journal of immunogenetics. (2005) [Pubmed]
  10. In vivo activation of chicken macrophages by infectious bursal disease virus. Palmquist, J.M., Khatri, M., Cha, R.M., Goddeeris, B.M., Walcheck, B., Sharma, J.M. Viral Immunol. (2006) [Pubmed]
  11. Nitric oxide inducing function and intracellular movement of chicken interleukin-18 in cultured cells. Xu, J., Deng, T.L., Li, L., You, Z.Q., Wan, W.J., Yu, L. Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai) (2005) [Pubmed]
  12. Breed effect on early cytokine mRNA expression in spleen and cecum of chickens with and without Salmonella enteritidis infection. Cheeseman, J.H., Kaiser, M.G., Ciraci, C., Kaiser, P., Lamont, S.J. Dev. Comp. Immunol. (2007) [Pubmed]
  13. Cytokine gene expression patterns associated with immunization against Marek's disease in chickens. Abdul-Careem, M.F., Hunter, B.D., Parvizi, P., Haghighi, H.R., Thanthrige-Don, N., Sharif, S. Vaccine (2007) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential cytokine mRNA expression in heterophils isolated from Salmonella-resistant and -susceptible chickens. Swaggerty, C.L., Kogut, M.H., Ferro, P.J., Rothwell, L., Pevzner, I.Y., Kaiser, P. Immunology (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. A sensitive bioassay for chicken interleukin-18 based on the inducible release of preformed interferon-gamma. Puehler, F., Göbel, T., Breyer, U., Ohnemus, A., Staeheli, P., Kaspers, B. J. Immunol. Methods (2003) [Pubmed]
  16. Bovine lactoferrin inhibits tumor-induced angiogenesis. Shimamura, M., Yamamoto, Y., Ashino, H., Oikawa, T., Hazato, T., Tsuda, H., Iigo, M. Int. J. Cancer (2004) [Pubmed]
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