The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Biodegradation of the cyclic nitramine explosives RDX, HMX, and CL-20.

Cyclic nitramine explosives are synthesized globally mainly as military munitions, and their use has resulted in environmental contamination. Several biodegradation pathways have been proposed, and these are based mainly on end-product characterization because many of the metabolic intermediates are hypothetical and unstable in water. Biodegradation mechanisms for cyclic nitramines include (a) formation of a nitramine free radical and loss of nitro functional groups, (b) reduction of nitro functional groups, (c) direct enzymatic cleavage, (d) alpha-hydroxylation, or (e) hydride ion transfer. Pathway intermediates spontaneously decompose in water producing nitrite, nitrous oxide, formaldehyde, or formic acid as common end-products. In vitro enzyme and functional gene expression studies have implicated a limited number of enzymes/genes involved in cyclic nitramine catabolism. Advances in molecular biology methods such as high-throughput DNA sequencing, microarray analysis, and nucleic acid sample preparation are providing access to biochemical and genetic information on cultivable and uncultivable microorganisms. This information can provide the knowledge base for rational engineering of bioremediation strategies, biosensor development, environmental monitoring, and green biosynthesis of explosives. This paper reviews recent developments on the biodegradation of cyclic nitramines and the potential of genomics to identify novel functional genes of explosive metabolism.[1]


  1. Biodegradation of the cyclic nitramine explosives RDX, HMX, and CL-20. Crocker, F.H., Indest, K.J., Fredrickson, H.L. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities