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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Metabolic activation of 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone as measured by DNA alkylation in vitro and its inhibition by isothiocyanates.

The bioactivation of the tobacco-specific nitrosamine, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK), by microsomes from target organs was studied with an in vitro microsome-mediated DNA alkylation system. Mouse lung, rat lung, and rat nasal microsomes catalyzed a time- and protein-dependent DNA methylation by [methyl-3H]NNK with activities of 4.11, 0.95, and 137.4 pmol/ mg DNA/ mg protein/h, respectively. The DNA methylation of NNK catalyzed by all three microsomal systems was inhibited by cytochrome P-450 inhibitors, such as carbon monoxide and metyrapone, but not by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor, aspirin, or by prolonged preincubation in the absence of NADPH. The possible involvement of specific P450 isozymes was assessed by specific inhibitory antibodies. An anti-P450IIB1&2 antibody significantly inhibited the DNA methylation by 45 and 32% in mouse lung and rat lung, respectively, whereas anti-P450IA1 and anti-P450IIE1 antibodies failed to show significant inhibition. All antibodies showed no inhibition in rat nasal microsomes. Glutathione inhibited the DNA methylation in a concentration-dependent manner in all three microsomal systems. Phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), at doses of 0.25 and 1.00 mmol/kg body weight, was given intragastrically 2 h before sacrifice to mice and 24 h before sacrifice to rats, respectively; both mouse and rat lung microsomal activities were inhibited by about 40 and 90% by the low- and high-dose PEITC treatments, respectively. The rat nasal microsomes were only inhibited by the high-dose PEITC treatment by about 40%. PEITC, 4-phenylbutyl isothiocyanate, and 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate all inhibited the microsome-mediated DNA methylation of NNK in vitro, with 4-phenylbutyl isothiocyanate and 6-phenylhexyl isothiocyanate being more potent than PEITC and the mouse lung microsomes more sensitive than the rat lung and nasal microsomes. All three microsomal systems were shown to catalyze the in vitro DNA pyridyloxobutylation by [5-3H]NNK. On an equal protein basis, the rat nasal microsomes were much more active in catalyzing the DNA pyridyloxobutylation.[1]


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