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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Isolation, partial purification and characterization of nuclear retinoic acid receptors from chick skin.

Nuclear receptors (RARs) for retinoic acid (RA) are considered to be the ultimate mediators of the action of RA in the control of cell differentiation and inhibition of tumorigenesis. We have isolated and partially purified and characterized RAR from a RA-responsive tissue, chick embryo skin. The purification steps included Affi-Gel blue chromatography, ultrafiltration, size exclusion chromatography, and preparative isoelectric focusing. The electrofocusing of RAR-[3H]RA complex in ampholines (pH 3-10) revealed that the receptors have an isoelectric pH of 7. 5. Whereas pronase-digested the RAR-[3H]RA complex completely, DNase showed 20-35% and RNase showed negligible digestive action on the complex. The ligand binding to RAR was completely inhibited by a mercury compound. RAR-alpha- and RAR-beta-specific antibodies, on Western blot analysis, immunoreacted with a protein having a molecular weight of 50,000, presumably RAR. Binding affinity studies revealed that biologically active analogs of RA with a free COOH group (e.g., 13-cis-RA, RO-13-7410, Ch 55, and Am 80) showed, like RA, high binding affinity for RAR, whereas biologically ineffective analogs of RA (e.g., furyl and pyridyl) were poor binders. Other groups of retinoids, in which the COOH group was either lacking or blocked, did not bind to RAR whether or not they were biologically active.[1]


  1. Isolation, partial purification and characterization of nuclear retinoic acid receptors from chick skin. Sani, B.P., Singh, R.K., Reddy, L.G., Gaub, M.P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1990) [Pubmed]
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