The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)



Gene Review

RARA  -  retinoic acid receptor, alpha

Gallus gallus

Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of RAR-ALPHA1

  • We have shown recently that a retrovirus vector expressing a natural mutant form of the PML-RAR alpha protein characteristic of human acute promyelocytic leukaemia can transform early chicken hematopoietic progenitors (Altabef et al., 1996) [1].

High impact information on RAR-ALPHA1

  • We now demonstrate the ability of RAR alpha, beta and gamma to bind to and transactivate through this element and that the two direct repeats comprise the beta RARE [2].
  • Three closely related receptors, RAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma, with distinct expression patterns, have been identified and a fourth receptor, hRXR-alpha, which responds to RA but which has low homology to RAR-alpha, -beta and -gamma, was recently discovered [3].
  • To further investigate the mechanisms of this co-operation, we have tested whether a truncated RAR alpha could cooperate with the v-erbB oncogene [1].
  • Antibodies to retinoic acid receptors (RAR alpha and -beta), T3 receptor, or chicken ovalbumin up-stream promoter-transcription factor had no apparent effect [4].
  • Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) leads to increased levels of both trkA mRNA and protein, a response mediated through retinoic acid receptor alpha (RAR alpha) [5].

Biological context of RAR-ALPHA1


Anatomical context of RAR-ALPHA1

  • RAR-alpha mRNA expression in T lymphocytes peaked in chicks fed low levels of vitamin A (830 and 1500 micrograms/kg diet) and declined at higher intakes [9].
  • The ER, RAR alpha and RAR beta genes, but not that of RAR gamma, were expressed during oviduct development, indicating that estrogen and vitamin A may control the expression of target genes through their cognate receptors [10].
  • The surface coat of endothelial and epithelial cells, the laminae rarae (interna and externa) of the glomerular basement membrane, the laminae rara and diffusa (wherever distinct endothelial and epithelial basement membranes occurred) as well as the collagen fibrils show particles (with polycationic dyes) or filaments (with monocationic dyes) [11].

Other interactions of RAR-ALPHA1

  • These are the RAR-alpha, RAR-beta and RAR-gamma genes and the RXR-alpha, RXR-beta and RXR-gamma genes [12].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of RAR-ALPHA1


  1. A truncated RAR alpha co-operates with the v-erbB oncogene to transform early haematopoietic progenitors in vitro and in vivo. Altabef, M., Garcia, M., Varior-Krishnan, G., Samarut, J. Oncogene (1997) [Pubmed]
  2. Functional characterization of a natural retinoic acid responsive element. Vivanco Ruiz, M.M., Bugge, T.H., Hirschmann, P., Stunnenberg, H.G. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  3. A member of the RXR nuclear receptor family is expressed in neural-crest-derived cells of the developing chick peripheral nervous system. Rowe, A., Eager, N.S., Brickell, P.M. Development (1991) [Pubmed]
  4. Specific binding to vitamin D response elements of chicken intestinal DNA-binding activity is not related to the vitamin D receptor. Ferrari, S., Battini, R., Molinari, S. Mol. Endocrinol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. Retinoic acid-mediated increase in TrkA expression is sufficient to elicit NGF-dependent survival of sympathetic neurons. von Holst, A., Rodriguez-Tébar, A., Michaille, J.J., Dhouailly, D., Bäckström, A., Ebendal, T., Rohrer, H. Mol. Cell. Neurosci. (1995) [Pubmed]
  6. Characterization of cDNAs encoding two chick retinoic acid receptor alpha isoforms and distribution of retinoic acid receptor alpha, beta and gamma transcripts during chick skin development. Michaille, J.J., Kanzler, B., Blanchet, S., Garnier, J.M., Dhouailly, D. Int. J. Dev. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  7. Responsiveness to retinoic acid changes during chondrocyte maturation. Iwamoto, M., Golden, E.B., Adams, S.L., Noji, S., Pacifici, M. Exp. Cell Res. (1993) [Pubmed]
  8. Regulation of differentiating pig preadipocytes by retinoic acid. Brandebourg, T.D., Hu, C.Y. J. Anim. Sci. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. Retinoic acid receptor-alpha gene expression is modulated by dietary vitamin A and by retinoic acid in chicken T lymphocytes. Halevy, O., Arazi, Y., Melamed, D., Friedman, A., Sklan, D. J. Nutr. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Vitamin A is involved in estrogen-induced cell proliferation but not in cytodifferentiation of the chicken oviduct. Ninomiya, Y., Arao, Y., Kometani, T., Hiwatashi, S., Yamasaki, T., Erikawa, T., Yamaguchi, H., Hasegawa, T., Masushige, S., Kato, S. J. Endocrinol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  11. The glomerular filtration barrier of the kidney in seven vertebrates classes. Comparative morphological and histochemical observations. Decker, B., Reale, E. European journal of basic and applied histochemistry. (1991) [Pubmed]
  12. The chicken retinoid-X-receptor-gamma gene gives rise to two distinct species of mRNA with different patterns of expression. Seleiro, E.A., Darling, D., Brickell, P.M. Biochem. J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  13. Isolation, partial purification and characterization of nuclear retinoic acid receptors from chick skin. Sani, B.P., Singh, R.K., Reddy, L.G., Gaub, M.P. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. Expression of retinoid X receptors and COUP-TFI in a human salivary gland adenocarcinoma cell line. Kyakumoto, S., Nemoto, T., Sato, N., Ota, M. Biochem. Cell Biol. (1997) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities