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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

cDNA sequence encoding the 16-kDa proteolipid of chromaffin granules implies gene duplication in the evolution of H+-ATPases.

Vacuolar H+-ATPases function in generating protonmotive force across the membranes of organelles connected with the vacuolar system of eukaryotic cells. This family of H+-ATPases is distinct from the two other families of H+-ATPases, the plasma membrane-type and the eubacterial-type. One of the subunits of the vacuolar H+-ATPase binds N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD) and has been implicated in the proton-conducting activity of these enzymes. We have cloned and sequenced the gene encoding the DCCD-binding protein (proteolipid) of the H+-ATPase of bovine chromaffin granules. The gene encodes a highly hydrophobic protein of 15,849 Da. Hydropathy plots revealed four transmembrane segments, one of which contains a glutamic residue that is the likely candidate for the DCCD binding site. Sequence homology with the vacuolar proteolipid and with the proteolipids of eubacterial-type H+-ATPases was detected. The proteolipids from Escherichia coli, spinach chloroplasts, and yeast mitochondria matched better to the NH2-terminal part of the vacuolar protein. The proteolipids of bovine mitochondria and Neurospora mitochondria matched better to the COOH-terminal end of the vacuolar proteolipid. These findings suggest that the proteolipids of the vacuolar H+-ATPases were evolved in parallel with the eubacterial proteolipid, from a common ancestral gene that underwent gene duplication.[1]


  1. cDNA sequence encoding the 16-kDa proteolipid of chromaffin granules implies gene duplication in the evolution of H+-ATPases. Mandel, M., Moriyama, Y., Hulmes, J.D., Pan, Y.C., Nelson, H., Nelson, N. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1988) [Pubmed]
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