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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Antibiotic resistance mutations in the chloroplast 16S and 23S rRNA genes of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: correlation of genetic and physical maps of the chloroplast genome.

Mutants resistant to streptomycin, spectinomycin, neamine/kanamycin and erythromycin define eight genetic loci in a linear linkage group corresponding to about 21 kb of the circular chloroplast genome of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. With one exception, all of these mutants represent single base-pair changes in conserved regions of the genes encoding the 16S and 23S chloroplast ribosomal RNAs. Streptomycin resistance can result from changes at the bases equivalent to Escherichia coli 13, 523, and 912-915 in the 16S gene, or from mutations in the rps12 gene encoding chloroplast ribosomal protein S12. In the 912-915 region of the 16S gene, three mutations were identified that resulted in different levels of streptomycin resistance in vitro. Although the three regions of the 16S rRNA mutable to streptomycin resistance are widely separated in the primary sequence, studies by other laboratories of RNA secondary structure and protein cross-linking suggest that all three regions are involved in a common ribosomal neighborhood that interacts with ribosomal proteins S4, S5 and S12. Three different changes within a conserved region of the 16S gene, equivalent to E. coli bases 1191-1193, confer varying levels of spectinomycin resistance, while resistance to neamine and kanamycin results from mutations in the 16S gene at bases equivalent to E. coli 1408 and 1409. Five mutations in two genetically distinct erythromycin resistance loci map in the 23S rDNA of C. reinhardtii, at positions equivalent to E. coli 2057-2058 and 2611, corresponding to the rib3 and rib2 loci of yeast mitochondria respectively. Although all five mutants are highly resistant to erythromycin, they differ in levels of cross-resistance to lincomycin and clindamycin. The order and spacing of all these mutations in the physical map are entirely consistent with our genetic map of the same loci and thereby validate the zygote clone method of analysis used to generate this map. These results are discussed in comparison with other published maps of chloroplast genes based on analysis by different methods using many of the same mutants.[1]


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