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Chemical Compound Review

Kantrex     2-[(1S,2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-5...

Synonyms: Vetstrep, Agrept, Gerox, streptomycin, Streptomycin A, ...
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Disease relevance of streptomycin

  • Broad spectrum antibacterials, including streptomycin, rifampicin, and fluoroquinolones have been demonstrated to act on the same targets in M. tuberculosis as they do in E. coli [1].
  • RESULTS: Among patients with no prior treatment, a median of 9.9 percent of Mycobacterium tuberculosis strains were resistant to at least one drug (range, 2 to 41 percent); resistance to isoniazid (7.3 percent) or streptomycin (6.5 percent) was more common than resistance to rifampin (1.8 percent) or ethambutol (1.0 percent) [2].
  • Of 49 shelter-related cases, 22 had cultures resistant to both isoniazid and streptomycin and of the same phage type, indicating recent transmission originating with a single index patient [3].
  • Short-term therapy for streptococcal infective endocarditis. Combined intramuscular administration of penicillin and streptomycin [4].
  • There was no phlebitis, buttocks abscess, or drug eruptions, and treatment was better tolerated in the streptomycin and sulfisoxazole group [5].

Psychiatry related information on streptomycin


High impact information on streptomycin

  • Strains containing the rpsL252 or StrM287 streptomycin-dependent alleles are able to grow in the absence of streptomycin when transformed with plasmids containing the U1469 mutation in 16S rRNA [10].
  • A C to U substitution at position 1469 of 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) from Escherichia coli suppresses streptomycin dependence and causes increased translational error frequencies [10].
  • This value is greatly increased during growth in low concentrations of streptomycin and neomycin, antibiotics which are known to stimulate misreading in vitro [11].
  • The isolation of a class of partial revertants to temperature insensitivity which have simultaneously become sensitive to streptomycin suggests that the translational requirement for the anticodon modification can be partially overcome by a change in the structure of the ribosome [12].
  • We also describe the crystal structure of the 30S subunit complexed with the antibiotics paromomycin, streptomycin and spectinomycin, which interfere with decoding and translocation [13].

Chemical compound and disease context of streptomycin


Biological context of streptomycin


Anatomical context of streptomycin

  • Non-Mendelian streptomycin-resistant tobacco mutant with altered chlorplasts and mitochondria [24].
  • Efficient plastid transformation requires the aadA marker gene, which confers resistance to the antibiotics spectinomycin and streptomycin [25].
  • Removal of the transport proteins from the cytosol with streptomycin sulfate provided a basal system incapable of supporting the active transport of alpha 2 mu-globulin mRNA [26].
  • With chain-elongating but noninitiating ribosomes (i.e., purified polysomes) deprived of an aminoacyl--tRNA, streptomycin and other aminoglycosides, over a wide range of concentrations, stimulate incorporation [27].
  • Differences between the proliferation marker densities in control and damaged end organs indicate that the upregulation of mitotic activity observed after streptomycin treatment is due primarily to an increase in the number of dividing progenitor cells [28].

Associations of streptomycin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of streptomycin

  • Mutations in the rpsL and rrs genes, associated with streptomycin resistance, were found in 13 of 25 and 2 of 25 streptomycin-resistant strains, respectively [34].
  • Using a particle gun, wild type C. reinhardtii cells have been transformed with a plasmid carrying the psaC gene disrupted by an aadA gene cassette designed to express spectinomycin/streptomycin resistance in the chloroplast [35].
  • A spectinomycin resistance mutation is encoded in the gene of the 16S rRNA and, 3.2 kb away, a streptomycin resistance mutation is encoded in exon II of the ribosomal protein gene rps12 [36].
  • Analysis of 5' and 3' flanking sequences shows that Tn2603 differs from its probable precursor, Tn21, by a precise 1004-base-pair insertion, containing the OXA-1 structural gene, at the target sequence AAAGTT, which is located between the Tn21 streptomycin/spectinomycin (aadA) promoter and its structural gene [37].
  • Evidence is presented that the polyamine requirement for the growth of the polyamine-dependent speAB, speC deletion mutants, which are also streptomycin resistant, is not due to a decreased ability to synthesize polyamines [38].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of streptomycin


  1. Molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Blanchard, J.S. Annu. Rev. Biochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  2. Global surveillance for antituberculosis-drug resistance, 1994-1997. World Health Organization-International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease Working Group on Anti-Tuberculosis Drug Resistance Surveillance. Pablos-Méndez, A., Raviglione, M.C., Laszlo, A., Binkin, N., Rieder, H.L., Bustreo, F., Cohn, D.L., Lambregts-van Weezenbeek, C.S., Kim, S.J., Chaulet, P., Nunn, P. N. Engl. J. Med. (1998) [Pubmed]
  3. Exogenous reinfection with tuberculosis in a shelter for the homeless. Nardell, E., McInnis, B., Thomas, B., Weidhaas, S. N. Engl. J. Med. (1986) [Pubmed]
  4. Short-term therapy for streptococcal infective endocarditis. Combined intramuscular administration of penicillin and streptomycin. Wilson, W.R., Thompson, R.L., Wilkowske, C.J., Washington, J.A., Giuliani, E.R., Geraci, J.E. JAMA (1981) [Pubmed]
  5. Streptomycin and sulfisoxazole for treatment of Haemophilus influenzae meningitis. Meade, R.H. JAMA (1978) [Pubmed]
  6. Replacement of streptomycin by ethambutol in the intensive phase of tuberculosis treatment: no effect on compliance. Rabarijaona, L., Boisier, P., Ratsirahonana, O., Razafinimanana, J., Rakotomanana, F., Ratsitorahina, M., Ramarokoto, H., Cauchoix, B., Aurégan, G. The international journal of tuberculosis and lung disease : the official journal of the International Union against Tuberculosis and Lung Disease. (1999) [Pubmed]
  7. Effects of streptomycin on development of the apical structures of hair cells in the chick basilar papilla. Pickles, J.O., Rouse, G.W. Hear. Res. (1991) [Pubmed]
  8. Impaired tunnel-maze behavior in rats with sensory lesions: vestibular and auditory systems. Schaeppi, U., Krinke, G., FitzGerald, R.E., Classen, W. Neurotoxicology (1991) [Pubmed]
  9. Fatal intravenous drug abuse secondary to streptomycin overdose. Rance, F., Randall, B. J. Forensic Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  10. A single base substitution in 16S ribosomal RNA suppresses streptomycin dependence and increases the frequency of translational errors. Allen, P.N., Noller, H.F. Cell (1991) [Pubmed]
  11. Mistranslation in E. coli. Edelmann, P., Gallant, J. Cell (1977) [Pubmed]
  12. A functional requirement for modification of the wobble nucleotide in tha anticodon of a T4 suppressor tRNA. Colby, D.S., Schedl, P., Guthrie, C. Cell (1976) [Pubmed]
  13. Functional insights from the structure of the 30S ribosomal subunit and its interactions with antibiotics. Carter, A.P., Clemons, W.M., Brodersen, D.E., Morgan-Warren, R.J., Wimberly, B.T., Ramakrishnan, V. Nature (2000) [Pubmed]
  14. Naturally occurring plasmid carrying genes for enterotoxin production and drug resistance. Gyles, C.L., Palchaudhuri, S., Maas, W.K. Science (1977) [Pubmed]
  15. Interference with the mannose binding and epithelial cell adherence of Escherichia coli by sublethal concentrations of streptomycin. Eisenstein, B.I., Ofek, I., Beachey, E.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  16. Cutaneous hypersensitivity reactions due to thiacetazone in HIV-1 seropositive patients treated for tuberculosis. Nunn, P., Kibuga, D., Gathua, S., Brindle, R., Imalingat, A., Wasunna, K., Lucas, S., Gilks, C., Omwega, M., Were, J. Lancet (1991) [Pubmed]
  17. Autoregulatory factors and communication in actinomycetes. Horinouchi, S., Beppu, T. Annu. Rev. Microbiol. (1992) [Pubmed]
  18. Virulence of antibiotic-resistant Salmonella typhimurium. Björkman, J., Hughes, D., Andersson, D.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1998) [Pubmed]
  19. A multi-institutional outbreak of highly drug-resistant tuberculosis: epidemiology and clinical outcomes. Frieden, T.R., Sherman, L.F., Maw, K.L., Fujiwara, P.I., Crawford, J.T., Nivin, B., Sharp, V., Hewlett, D., Brudney, K., Alland, D., Kreisworth, B.N. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  20. Reverse Translocation of tRNA in the Ribosome. Shoji, S., Walker, S.E., Fredrick, K. Mol. Cell (2006) [Pubmed]
  21. Mutational analysis of mammalian poly(A) polymerase identifies a region for primer binding and catalytic domain, homologous to the family X polymerases, and to other nucleotidyltransferases. Martin, G., Keller, W. EMBO J. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. Mutations in eukaryotic 18S ribosomal RNA affect translational fidelity and resistance to aminoglycoside antibiotics. Chernoff, Y.O., Vincent, A., Liebman, S.W. EMBO J. (1994) [Pubmed]
  23. Genetic and comparative analyses reveal an alternative secondary structure in the region of nt 912 of Escherichia coli 16S rRNA. Lodmell, J.S., Gutell, R.R., Dahlberg, A.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1995) [Pubmed]
  24. Non-Mendelian streptomycin-resistant tobacco mutant with altered chlorplasts and mitochondria. Maliga, P., Sz-Breznovits, A., Marton L Joo, F. Nature (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Removal of antibiotic resistance genes from transgenic tobacco plastids. Iamtham, S., Day, A. Nat. Biotechnol. (2000) [Pubmed]
  26. Active transport of messenger ribonucleoprotein particles in a reconstituted cell-free system. French, B.T., Schumm, D.E., Webb, T.E. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  27. Streptomycin causes misreading of natural messenger by interacting with ribosomes after initiation. Tai, P.C., Wallace, B.J., Davis, B.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  28. Identification of hair cell progenitors and intermitotic migration of their nuclei in the normal and regenerating avian inner ear. Tsue, T.T., Watling, D.L., Weisleder, P., Coltrera, M.D., Rubel, E.W. J. Neurosci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  29. Tuberculous pericarditis. Fowler, N.O. JAMA (1991) [Pubmed]
  30. Penicillin binding protein 2 is dispensable in Escherichia coli when ppGpp synthesis is induced. Vinella, D., D'Ari, R., Jaffé, A., Bouloc, P. EMBO J. (1992) [Pubmed]
  31. A waterborne outbreak in Missouri of Escherichia coli O157:H7 associated with bloody diarrhea and death. Swerdlow, D.L., Woodruff, B.A., Brady, R.C., Griffin, P.M., Tippen, S., Donnell, H.D., Geldreich, E., Payne, B.J., Meyer, A., Wells, J.G. Ann. Intern. Med. (1992) [Pubmed]
  32. Purification and characterization of the yeast negative regulatory protein GAL80. Yun, S.J., Hiraoka, Y., Nishizawa, M., Takio, K., Titani, K., Nogi, Y., Fukasawa, T. J. Biol. Chem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Fluorescence studies on a streptomycin-induced conformational change in ribosomes which correlates with misreading. Hanas, J.S., Simpson, M.V. J. Biol. Chem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  34. Implications of multidrug resistance for the future of short-course chemotherapy of tuberculosis: a molecular study. Heym, B., Honoré, N., Truffot-Pernot, C., Banerjee, A., Schurra, C., Jacobs, W.R., van Embden, J.D., Grosset, J.H., Cole, S.T. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  35. Directed chloroplast transformation in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii: insertional inactivation of the psaC gene encoding the iron sulfur protein destabilizes photosystem I. Takahashi, Y., Goldschmidt-Clermont, M., Soen, S.Y., Franzén, L.G., Rochaix, J.D. EMBO J. (1991) [Pubmed]
  36. Long regions of homologous DNA are incorporated into the tobacco plastid genome by transformation. Staub, J.M., Maliga, P. Plant Cell (1992) [Pubmed]
  37. Precise insertion of antibiotic resistance determinants into Tn21-like transposons: nucleotide sequence of the OXA-1 beta-lactamase gene. Ouellette, M., Bissonnette, L., Roy, P.H. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  38. Biosynthesis of polyamines in ornithine decarboxylase, arginine decarboxylase, and agmatine ureohydrolase deletion mutants of Escherichia coli strain K-12. Panagiotidis, C.A., Blackburn, S., Low, K.B., Canellakis, E.S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  39. Origin and interstate spread of a New York City multidrug-resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis clone family. Bifani, P.J., Plikaytis, B.B., Kapur, V., Stockbauer, K., Pan, X., Lutfey, M.L., Moghazeh, S.L., Eisner, W., Daniel, T.M., Kaplan, M.H., Crawford, J.T., Musser, J.M., Kreiswirth, B.N. JAMA (1996) [Pubmed]
  40. Lysophospholipase of Escherichia coli. Doi, O., Nojima, S. J. Biol. Chem. (1975) [Pubmed]
  41. Identification of a cell wall channel of Streptomyces griseus: the channel contains a binding site for streptomycin. Kim, B.H., Andersen, C., Benz, R. Mol. Microbiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  42. Chloroplast transformation in plants: polyethylene glycol (PEG) treatment of protoplasts is an alternative to biolistic delivery systems. O'Neill, C., Horváth, G.V., Horváth, E., Dix, P.J., Medgyesy, P. Plant J. (1993) [Pubmed]
  43. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Beijing genotype emerging in Vietnam. Anh, D.D., Borgdorff, M.W., Van, L.N., Lan, N.T., van Gorkom, T., Kremer, K., van Soolingen, D. Emerging Infect. Dis. (2000) [Pubmed]
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