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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Multiple molecular forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in cardiac and smooth muscle and in platelets. Isolation, characterization, and effects of various reference phosphodiesterase inhibitors and cardiotonic agents.

Multiple molecular forms of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase have been identified previously in several tissues and cell types using a variety of different isolation methods. In the present study, the different molecular forms of phosphodiesterase (PDE) were isolated from cardiac muscle (guinea pig left ventricle), vascular smooth muscle (bovine coronary arteries) and human platelets using the same isolation procedure in each instance. These enzymes were then characterized kinetically, and the effects of various reference PDE inhibitors and cardiotonic agents on each form were examined. A low Km, low Vmax form of phosphodiesterase (PDE I) was found in all three tissue/cell types. PDE I activity was stimulated by calmodulin in cardiac and smooth muscle, but not in platelets. In smooth muscle and platelets, PDE I preferentially hydrolyzed cyclic GMP, whereas cardiac muscle PDE I hydrolyzed cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP equally. A high Km, high Vmax form of phosphodiesterase (PDE II) was found in cardiac muscle and platelets, but not in smooth muscle. PDE II activity was not stimulated by calmodulin and there was no substrate specificity. A low Km, low Vmax cyclic AMP-specific form of phosphodiesterase (PDE III) was found in all three tissue/cell types. The activity of PDE III was not stimulated by calmodulin. The reference inhibitors theophylline and papaverine exerted non-specific inhibitory effects on all forms of phosphodiesterase. Other reference inhibitors (M & B 22,948 and dipyridamole) and several cardiotonic agents (AR-L 57, CI-914, CI-930, amrinone, and MDL 17,043) exerted selective inhibitory effects on only one molecular form of phosphodiesterase. The degree of selectivity was often dependent upon the tissue or cell from which the molecular form of phosphodiesterase was isolated. These studies demonstrate that there is heterogeneity regarding the number of phosphodiesterases present in various tissue/cell types, as well as their substrate specificity and their ability to be stimulated by calmodulin, and these different molecular forms of phosphodiesterase can be selectively inhibited by different pharmacological agents. The possibility exists that such selective inhibitors may produce discrete changes in cyclic AMP or cyclic GMP levels, and that these changes may be produced in specific tissues and/or cells.[1]


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