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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Proline porter II is activated by a hyperosmotic shift in both whole cells and membrane vesicles of Escherichia coli K12.

Proline porter II is rapidly activated when nongrowing bacteria are subjected to a hyperosmotic shift (Grothe, S., Krogsrud, R. L., McClellan, D. J., Milner, J. L., and Wood, J. M. (1986) J. Bacteriol. 166, 253-259). Proline porter II was active in membrane vesicles prepared from bacteria grown under optimal conditions, nutritional stress, or osmotic stress. That activity was: (i) dependent on the presence of the energy sources phenazine methosulphate plus ascorbate or D-lactate; (ii) observed only when a hyperosmotic shift accompanied the transport measurement; (iii) inhibited by glycine betaine in a manner analogous to that observed in whole cells; and (iv) eliminated by lesions in proP. Membrane vesicles were able to transport serine but not glutamine and serine transport was reduced by the hyperosmotic shift. In whole cells, proline porter II activity was supported by glucose and by D-lactate in a strain defective for proline porters I and III and the F1F0-ATPase. Glucose energized proline uptake was eliminated by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone and KCN as was serine uptake. These results suggested that proline porter II was respiration-dependent and probably ion-linked. Activation of proline porter II in whole cells by sucrose or NaCl was sustained over 30 min, whereas activation by glycerol was transient. Proline porter II was activated by NaCl and sucrose with a half-time of approximately 1 min in both whole cells and membrane vesicles. Thus, activation of proline porter II was reversible. It occurred at a rate comparable to that of K+ influx and much more rapid than the genetic regulatory responses that follow a hyperosmotic shift.[1]


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