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Chemical Compound Review

Propel     (2R)-2-hydroxypropanoic acid

Synonyms: D-lactate, D-Milchsaeure, delta-Lactate, D-Lactic acid, R-lactic acid, ...
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Disease relevance of lactic acid

  • We also discuss the responses of Listeria monocytogenes, Rhodococcus, Mycobacterium, Clostridium perfringens, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, oral streptococci, and lactic acid bacteria to acidic environments and outline ways in which this knowledge has been or may be used to either aid or prevent bacterial survival in low-pH environments [1].
  • It is proposed that a large part of the loss of function is directly attributable to an immediate fall of intracellular pH and results from the accumulation of carbon dioxide and lactic acid; the intracellular acidosis reduces myocardial function by inhibition of that part of the calcium-ion influx associated with contraction [2].
  • It is suggested that, in these patients, increased production of lactic acid by the brain, due to profound hypoxia, leads to a central hypoxic drive to breathing which is absent in remission when the arterial oxygen tension is higher [3].
  • Bifidobacteria (which constitute the predominant intestinal flora of breastfed infants), as well as other lactic-acid-producing organisms such as Streptococcus thermophilus, are thought to have a protective effect against acute diarrhoeal disease [4].
  • C.S.F. lactic acid for differential diagnosis of meningitis [5].

Psychiatry related information on lactic acid


High impact information on lactic acid

  • In exercising skeletal muscle, lactic acid contributes huge amounts of H(+) and by these affects the relative contribution of the three forms of CO(2) [11].
  • CSF lactic acid levels an aid to diagnosis [12].
  • Its sequence indicated that it is a subtilisin-like extracellular serine protease homologous to streptococcal C5a peptidases and caseinases of lactic acid bacteria [13].
  • Addition of acidic medium from hypoxic cultures or exogenous lactic acid stimulated apoptosis in aerobic myocytes [14].
  • Similarly, addition of VEGF or lactic acid to the normoxia-CM had no effect on VEGF binding [15].

Chemical compound and disease context of lactic acid


Biological context of lactic acid

  • Examinations of the sperm showed that oxygen consumption and lactic acid production were normal; viability tests showed that the percentage of dead sperm was not increased [21].
  • The complete genome sequence of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 23K [22].
  • These results provide evidence that the production of lactic acid via glycolysis is not the only mechanism responsible for the development of an acidic environment within solid tumors [23].
  • This strain, DR1501 (beta), was found to be an excellent donor of the beta plasmid and readily transferred the resistance markers to various lactic acid bacteria, including certain strains of S. mutans, S. sanguis, and S. salivarius [24].
  • Anticoagulation was not used in the postoperative period during which time monthly laboratory parameters were obtained including hemoglobin, hematocrit, white cell count, red cell count and indices, lactic acid dehydrogenase, serum haptoglobin, and, additionally at sacrifice, platelet and red cell morphology [25].

Anatomical context of lactic acid


Associations of lactic acid with other chemical compounds

  • In islets from normoglycemic rats, however, the total output of L-lactic acid decreased and its specific radioactivity modestly increased as the concentration of D-glucose was lowered from 16.7 to 2.8 mM [31].
  • METHODS AND RESULTS: We incorporated a colchicine analogue into biodegradable microspheres composed of a lactic acid/glycolic acid copolymer and characterized their drug release behavior as well as their effects on bovine aortic smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) in culture [32].
  • CONCLUSIONS: The increase in VE in chronic HF patients is caused by an increase in VD/VT due to high ventilation/perfusion mismatching, an increase in VCO2 relative to VO2 resulting from HCO3- buffering of lactic acid, and a decrease in PaCO2 due to tight regulation of arterial pH [33].
  • The results are compared with the D-lactate-induced fluorescence enhancement observed with each dansylgalactoside and with the ability of N-methylpicolinium perchlorate to quench the fluorescence of the bound homologues [34].
  • The results indicate that (1) pH falls because of the generation of lactic acid by platelet glycolysis and, under some circumstances, the retention of CO2 [35].

Gene context of lactic acid


Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of lactic acid


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  2. Is early decline of cardiac function in ischaemia due to carbon-dioxide retention? Poole-Wilson, P.A. Lancet (1975) [Pubmed]
  3. Hypercapnia during oxygen therapy in acute exacerbations of chronic respiratory failure. Hypothesis revisited. Rudolf, M., Banks, R.A., Semple, S.J. Lancet (1977) [Pubmed]
  4. Feeding of Bifidobacterium bifidum and Streptococcus thermophilus to infants in hospital for prevention of diarrhoea and shedding of rotavirus. Saavedra, J.M., Bauman, N.A., Oung, I., Perman, J.A., Yolken, R.H. Lancet (1994) [Pubmed]
  5. C.S.F. lactic acid for differential diagnosis of meningitis. Brook, I., Rodriguez, W.J., Controni, G., Ross, S. Lancet (1979) [Pubmed]
  6. Sodium D-lactate infusion of panic disorder patients. Gorman, J.M., Goetz, R.R., Dillon, D., Liebowitz, M.R., Fyer, A.J., Davies, S., Klein, D.F. Neuropsychopharmacology (1990) [Pubmed]
  7. A temporary local energy pool coupled to neuronal activity: fluctuations of extracellular lactate levels in rat brain monitored with rapid-response enzyme-based sensor. Hu, Y., Wilson, G.S. J. Neurochem. (1997) [Pubmed]
  8. Microbiological study of lactic acid fermentation of Caper berries by molecular and culture-dependent methods. Pérez Pulido, R., Ben Omar, N., Abriouel, H., Lucas López, R., Martínez Cañamero, M., Gálvez, A. Appl. Environ. Microbiol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  9. CSF monoamine metabolites, cholinesterases and lactate in the adult hydrocephalus syndrome (normal pressure hydrocephalus) related to CSF hydrodynamic parameters. Malm, J., Kristensen, B., Ekstedt, J., Adolfsson, R., Wester, P. J. Neurol. Neurosurg. Psychiatr. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Severe metabolic acidosis secondary to exertional hyperlactemia. Bozzuto, T.M. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1988) [Pubmed]
  11. Carbon dioxide transport and carbonic anhydrase in blood and muscle. Geers, C., Gros, G. Physiol. Rev. (2000) [Pubmed]
  12. CSF lactic acid levels an aid to diagnosis. Check, W. JAMA (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. A novel streptococcal surface protease promotes virulence, resistance to opsonophagocytosis, and cleavage of human fibrinogen. Harris, T.O., Shelver, D.W., Bohnsack, J.F., Rubens, C.E. J. Clin. Invest. (2003) [Pubmed]
  14. Hypoxia-activated apoptosis of cardiac myocytes requires reoxygenation or a pH shift and is independent of p53. Webster, K.A., Discher, D.J., Kaiser, S., Hernandez, O., Sato, B., Bishopric, N.H. J. Clin. Invest. (1999) [Pubmed]
  15. Hypoxia-induced paracrine regulation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor expression. Brogi, E., Schatteman, G., Wu, T., Kim, E.A., Varticovski, L., Keyt, B., Isner, J.M. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Ubiquinone-mediated coupling of NADH dehydrogenase to active transport in membrane vesicles from Escherichia coli. Stroobant, P., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1975) [Pubmed]
  17. ATP-driven active transport in right-side-out bacterial membrane vesicles. Hugenholtz, J., Hong, J.S., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1981) [Pubmed]
  18. Local lactate perfusion of the ventromedial hypothalamus suppresses hypoglycemic counterregulation. Borg, M.A., Tamborlane, W.V., Shulman, G.I., Sherwin, R.S. Diabetes (2003) [Pubmed]
  19. Gas-liquid chromatographic analysis of synovial fluid. Succinic acid and lactic acid as markers for septic arthritis. Borenstein, D.G., Gibbs, C.A., Jacobs, R.P. Arthritis Rheum. (1982) [Pubmed]
  20. Membrane topology of the sodium ion-dependent citrate carrier of Klebsiella pneumoniae. Evidence for a new structural class of secondary transporters. van Geest, M., Lolkema, J.S. J. Biol. Chem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  21. Lack of dynein arms in immotile human spermatozoa. Afzelius, B.A., Eliasson, R., Johnsen, O., Lindholmer, C. J. Cell Biol. (1975) [Pubmed]
  22. The complete genome sequence of the meat-borne lactic acid bacterium Lactobacillus sakei 23K. Chaillou, S., Champomier-Vergès, M.C., Cornet, M., Crutz-Le Coq, A.M., Dudez, A.M., Martin, V., Beaufils, S., Darbon-Rongère, E., Bossy, R., Loux, V., Zagorec, M. Nat. Biotechnol. (2005) [Pubmed]
  23. Studies with glycolysis-deficient cells suggest that production of lactic acid is not the only cause of tumor acidity. Newell, K., Franchi, A., Pouysségur, J., Tannock, I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1993) [Pubmed]
  24. "Conjugal" transfer of plasmid DNA among oral streptococci. LeBlanc, D.J., Hawley, R.J., Lee, L.N., St Martin, E.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1978) [Pubmed]
  25. A new cardiac prosthesis: the St. Jude Medical cardiac valve: in vivo results. Emery, R.W., Mettler, E., Nicoloff, D.M. Circulation (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Metabolic characteristics of cells infected with a herpesvirus of turkeys. Ware, J.D., Bellini, W.J., Ash, R.J. J. Natl. Cancer Inst. (1975) [Pubmed]
  27. Influence of chronic lactulose ingestion on the colonic metabolism of lactulose in man (an in vivo study). Florent, C., Flourie, B., Leblond, A., Rautureau, M., Bernier, J.J., Rambaud, J.C. J. Clin. Invest. (1985) [Pubmed]
  28. Lactic-acid concentration in cerebrospinal fluid and differential diagnosis of meningitis. Lauwers, S. Lancet (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Self-assembling biomaterials: liquid crystal phases of cholesteryl oligo(L-lactic acid) and their interactions with cells. Hwang, J.J., Iyer, S.N., Li, L.S., Claussen, R., Harrington, D.A., Stupp, S.I. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  30. Enhanced antiinflammatory capacity of a Lactobacillus plantarum mutant synthesizing modified teichoic acids. Grangette, C., Nutten, S., Palumbo, E., Morath, S., Hermann, C., Dewulf, J., Pot, B., Hartung, T., Hols, P., Mercenier, A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2005) [Pubmed]
  31. Interference of glycogenolysis with glycolysis in pancreatic islets from glucose-infused rats. Malaisse, W.J., Maggetto, C., Leclercq-Meyer, V., Sener, A. J. Clin. Invest. (1993) [Pubmed]
  32. Biodegradable microspheres containing a colchicine analogue inhibit DNA synthesis in vascular smooth muscle cells. March, K.L., Mohanraj, S., Ho, P.P., Wilensky, R.L., Hathaway, D.R. Circulation (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Lung function and exercise gas exchange in chronic heart failure. Wasserman, K., Zhang, Y.Y., Gitt, A., Belardinelli, R., Koike, A., Lubarsky, L., Agostoni, P.G. Circulation (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. Microenvironment of the binding site in the lac carrier protein. Schuldiner, S., Weil, R., Robertson, D.E., Kaback, H.R. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1977) [Pubmed]
  35. Platelet storage at 22 degrees C: role of gas transport across plastic containers in maintenance of viability. Murphy, S., Gardner, F.H. Blood (1975) [Pubmed]
  36. Skeletal muscle adaptation to endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Maltais, F., LeBlanc, P., Simard, C., Jobin, J., Bérubé, C., Bruneau, J., Carrier, L., Belleau, R. Am. J. Respir. Crit. Care Med. (1996) [Pubmed]
  37. Characterisation of human monocarboxylate transporter 4 substantiates its role in lactic acid efflux from skeletal muscle. Manning Fox, J.E., Meredith, D., Halestrap, A.P. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (2000) [Pubmed]
  38. Regulation of cytosolic pH and lactic acid release in mesangial cells overexpressing GLUT1. Lang, K.S., Mueller, M.M., Tanneur, V., Wallisch, S., Fedorenko, O., Palmada, M., Lang, F., Bröer, S., Heilig, C.W., Schleicher, E., Weigert, C. Kidney Int. (2003) [Pubmed]
  39. Identification of strong interleukin-10 inducing lactic acid bacteria which down-regulate T helper type 2 cytokines. Niers, L.E., Timmerman, H.M., Rijkers, G.T., van Bleek, G.M., van Uden, N.O., Knol, E.F., Kapsenberg, M.L., Kimpen, J.L., Hoekstra, M.O. Clin. Exp. Allergy (2005) [Pubmed]
  40. Tumor-derived lactic acid modulates dendritic cell activation and antigen expression. Gottfried, E., Kunz-Schughart, L.A., Ebner, S., Mueller-Klieser, W., Hoves, S., Andreesen, R., Mackensen, A., Kreutz, M. Blood (2006) [Pubmed]
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