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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Nonmuscarinic neurotoxicity of oxotremorine.

The ability of various treatments to prevent peripheral parasympathetic actions, central effects and lethality of the muscarinic agonist oxotremorine was studied in rats. The percentage of animals exhibiting effects of oxotremorine was dose and time dependent. The ED50 for producing lacrimation, salivation, tremor, convulsions and death was 2.5, 1.3, 1.6, 3.2 and 8.3 mg/kg i.p., respectively. Pretreatment with 5 mg/kg of atropine completely prevented all observable effects of oxotremorine at doses of 5 mg/kg and below. Doses of oxotremorine in excess of 5 mg/kg produced tremor, generalized clonic convulsions and death that could not be prevented by atropine when given at up to 160 mg/kg; lacrimation and salivation were not present in atropine-treated rats. In the presence of 40 mg/kg of atropine, ED50 values for oxotremorine were shifted more than 12-fold for lacrimation, salivation and tremor, whereas convulsions and death were maximally altered by a factor of 2. Scopolamine, benactyzine and benztropine were also incapable of completely preventing tremor, convulsions and death induced by 10 or 15 mg/kg of oxotremorine. Atropine methyl nitrate had effects comparable to atropine sulfate on lacrimation, salivation and lethality induced by oxotremorine (10 or 15 mg/kg) but had no effect on tremor or convulsions. A similar profile of atropine-insensitive effects was produced by pilocarpine and arecoline. Doses of diazepam 4 times higher (4 mg/kg) than necessary to prevent tonic-clonic convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol were ineffective against tremor, convulsions or death produced by oxotremorine (10 or 15 mg/kg) unless given in conjunction with atropine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)[1]


  1. Nonmuscarinic neurotoxicity of oxotremorine. Witkin, J.M., Alvarado-Garcia, R., Lee, M.A., Witkin, K.M. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1987) [Pubmed]
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