The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)
Chemical Compound Review

Ocusert     (3S,4S)-3-ethyl-4-[(3- methylimidazol-4...

Synonyms: Akarpine, Pilostat, Pilagan, Salagen, pilocarpine, ...
Welcome! If you are familiar with the subject of this article, you can contribute to this open access knowledge base by deleting incorrect information, restructuring or completely rewriting any text. Read more.

Disease relevance of pilocarpine


Psychiatry related information on pilocarpine


High impact information on pilocarpine


Chemical compound and disease context of pilocarpine


Biological context of pilocarpine

  • Compound 48/80 produced a marked decrease in mean carotid blood pressure, while pilocarpine produced a slight increase in this parameter [17].
  • Salivation in response to pilocarpine stimulation was reduced significantly in both Nhe1(-/-) and Nhe2(-/-) mice, particularly during prolonged stimulation, whereas the loss of NHE3 had no effect on secretion [20].
  • Pilocarpine, like muscarinic antagonists, recognized all binding sites with the same affinity but acted as a partial agonist on amylase secretion and 45Ca efflux [21].
  • Here we show that the decreased salivary flow rate and increased tonicity of the saliva secreted by Aqp5(-)/- mice in response to pilocarpine stimulation are not caused by changes in whole body fluid homeostasis, indicated by similar blood gas and electrolyte concentrations in urine and blood in wild-type and AQP5-deficient mice [22].
  • Likewise, the kinetics of pilocarpine-induced discharge of radioactive material from pancreatic slices pulse-labelled with either 3H-Leu. or 35S-sulphate was compared [23].

Anatomical context of pilocarpine


Associations of pilocarpine with other chemical compounds


Gene context of pilocarpine

  • To establish the role of AQP5 in sweat secretion, we tested the response of adult mice to s.c. injection of pilocarpine, as visualized by reaction of secreted amylase with iodine/starch [32].
  • Although diminished in magnitude, a sweat response to pilocarpine was also noted in TH -/- mice at P21 [33].
  • At the chronic stage, i.e. at 2 months after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus, significant reduction of CCR7-10 expression in CB-, CR- and PV-immunpositive interneurons may suggest the phenotype change of surviving interneurons [34].
  • A high dose of pilocarpine (300 mg/kg) caused seizures and lethality in wild-type and M2-M5 knockout mice, but produced neither effect in the M1 knockout mice [35].
  • 4. These results suggest that pilocarpine has (i) a high affinity towards phenobarbitone-inducible CYP2A4/5 and CYP2B activities in mouse liver, (ii) a high affinity towards CYP2A6 in human liver microsomes and (iii) a moderate affinity towards CYP3A enzyme(s) in both microsomal preparations [36].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of pilocarpine


  1. Oral pilocarpine for post-irradiation xerostomia in patients with head and neck cancer. Johnson, J.T., Ferretti, G.A., Nethery, W.J., Valdez, I.H., Fox, P.C., Ng, D., Muscoplat, C.C., Gallagher, S.C. N. Engl. J. Med. (1993) [Pubmed]
  2. Abnormal jejunal potential difference in cystic fibrosis. Baxter, P.S., Wilson, A.J., Read, N.W., Hardcastle, J., Hardcastle, P.T., Taylor, C.J. Lancet (1989) [Pubmed]
  3. Dentate granule cell neurogenesis is increased by seizures and contributes to aberrant network reorganization in the adult rat hippocampus. Parent, J.M., Yu, T.W., Leibowitz, R.T., Geschwind, D.H., Sloviter, R.S., Lowenstein, D.H. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  4. Changes in hippocampal circuitry after pilocarpine-induced seizures as revealed by opioid receptor distribution and activation. Bausch, S.B., Chavkin, C. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  5. The aggravation of dementia by pilocarpine. Fraunfelder, F.T., Morgan, R. JAMA (1994) [Pubmed]
  6. The cholinergic REM sleep induction test with pilocarpine in mildly depressed patients and normal controls. Lauriello, J., Kenny, W.M., Sutton, L., Golshan, S., Ruiz, C., Kelsoe, J., Rapaport, M., Gillin, J.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1993) [Pubmed]
  7. Enhanced miotic response to topical dilute pilocarpine in patients with Alzheimer's disease. Kaneyuki, H., Mitsuno, S., Nishida, T., Yamada, M. Neurology (1998) [Pubmed]
  8. Sleep electroencephalographic response to muscarinic and serotonin1A receptor probes in patients with major depression and in normal controls. Seifritz, E., Gillin, J.C., Rapaport, M.H., Kelsoe, J.R., Bhatti, T., Stahl, S.M. Biol. Psychiatry (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Mouse-killing and motor activity: effects of chronic delta9-tetrahydrocannabinol and pilocarpine. Miczek, K.A. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  10. Antihemostatic, antiinflammatory, and immunosuppressive properties of the saliva of a tick, Ixodes dammini. Ribeiro, J.M., Makoul, G.T., Levine, J., Robinson, D.R., Spielman, A. J. Exp. Med. (1985) [Pubmed]
  11. Pretreatment with antibody to eosinophil major basic protein prevents hyperresponsiveness by protecting neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs. Evans, C.M., Fryer, A.D., Jacoby, D.B., Gleich, G.J., Costello, R.W. J. Clin. Invest. (1997) [Pubmed]
  12. Viral infection induces dependence of neuronal M2 muscarinic receptors on cyclooxygenase in guinea pig lung. Kahn, R.M., Okanlami, O.A., Jacoby, D.B., Fryer, A.D. J. Clin. Invest. (1996) [Pubmed]
  13. A neuropathic deficit, decreased sweating, is prevented and ameliorated by euglycemia in streptozocin diabetes in rats. Cardone, C., Dyck, P.J. J. Clin. Invest. (1990) [Pubmed]
  14. In vivo regulation of secretion of bronchiolar Clara cells in rats. Massaro, G.D., Paris, M., Thet, L.A. J. Clin. Invest. (1979) [Pubmed]
  15. Animal models of limbic epilepsies: what can they tell us? Coulter, D.A., McIntyre, D.C., Löscher, W. Brain Pathol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  16. Granule-like neurons at the hilar/CA3 border after status epilepticus and their synchrony with area CA3 pyramidal cells: functional implications of seizure-induced neurogenesis. Scharfman, H.E., Goodman, J.H., Sollas, A.L. J. Neurosci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  17. Mast cell degranulation, hepatic glycogen depletion, and hyperglycemia in Compound 48/80 or pilocarpine-treated rats. Dimlich, R.V., Townsend, S.F., Reilly, F.D. Hepatology (1982) [Pubmed]
  18. Correlation between hypermetabolism and neuronal damage during status epilepticus induced by lithium and pilocarpine in immature and adult rats. Fernandes, M.J., Dubé, C., Boyet, S., Marescaux, C., Nehlig, A. J. Cereb. Blood Flow Metab. (1999) [Pubmed]
  19. The peripheral anticholinergic activity of tricyclic antidepressants: comparison of amitriptyline and desipramine in human volunteers. Szabadi, E., Gaszner, P., Bradshaw, C.M. The British journal of psychiatry : the journal of mental science. (1980) [Pubmed]
  20. Defective fluid secretion and NaCl absorption in the parotid glands of Na+/H+ exchanger-deficient mice. Park, K., Evans, R.L., Watson, G.E., Nehrke, K., Richardson, L., Bell, S.M., Schultheis, P.J., Hand, A.R., Shull, G.E., Melvin, J.E. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  21. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors on rat pancreatic acini by N-[3H]methylscopolamine binding. Their relationship with calcium 45 efflux and amylase secretion. Dehaye, J.P., Winand, J., Poloczek, P., Christophe, J. J. Biol. Chem. (1984) [Pubmed]
  22. Salivary acinar cells from aquaporin 5-deficient mice have decreased membrane water permeability and altered cell volume regulation. Krane, C.M., Melvin, J.E., Nguyen, H.V., Richardson, L., Towne, J.E., Doetschman, T., Menon, A.G. J. Biol. Chem. (2001) [Pubmed]
  23. Sulphate metabolism in the exocrine pancreas. II. The production of sulphated macromolecules by the mouse exocrine pancreas. Berg, N.B. J. Cell. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  24. In vivo protein secretion by lung. Evidence for active secretion and interspecies differences. Massaro, D. J. Clin. Invest. (1975) [Pubmed]
  25. Secretory behavior and ultrastructural changes in mouse gallbladder principal cells after stimulation with cholinergic and adrenergic drugs. A morphometric study. Axelsson, H., Danielsson, A., Henriksson, R., Wahlin, T. Gastroenterology (1979) [Pubmed]
  26. Chromatin structure of a hyperactive secretory protein gene (in Balbiani ring 2) of Chironomus. Widmer, R.M., Lucchini, R., Lezzi, M., Meyer, B., Sogo, J.M., Edström, J.E., Koller, T. EMBO J. (1984) [Pubmed]
  27. Endocytic pathways at the lateral and basal cell surfaces of exocrine acinar cells. Oliver, C. J. Cell Biol. (1982) [Pubmed]
  28. Paradoxical anticonvulsant activity of the excitatory amino acid N-methyl-D-aspartate in the rat caudate-putamen. Turski, L., Meldrum, B.S., Cavalheiro, E.A., Calderazzo-Filho, L.S., Bortolotto, Z.A., Ikonomidou-Turski, C., Turski, W.A. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1987) [Pubmed]
  29. Function of pulmonary M2 muscarinic receptors in antigen-challenged guinea pigs is restored by heparin and poly-L-glutamate. Fryer, A.D., Jacoby, D.B. J. Clin. Invest. (1992) [Pubmed]
  30. Galanin modulation of seizures and seizure modulation of hippocampal galanin in animal models of status epilepticus. Mazarati, A.M., Liu, H., Soomets, U., Sankar, R., Shin, D., Katsumori, H., Langel, U., Wasterlain, C.G. J. Neurosci. (1998) [Pubmed]
  31. Dopamine-sensitive anticonvulsant site in the rat striatum. Turski, L., Cavalheiro, E.A., Bortolotto, Z.A., Ikonomidou-Turski, C., Kleinrok, Z., Turski, W.A. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  32. Functional requirement of aquaporin-5 in plasma membranes of sweat glands. Nejsum, L.N., Kwon, T.H., Jensen, U.B., Fumagalli, O., Frøkiaer, J., Krane, C.M., Menon, A.G., King, L.S., Agre, P.C., Nielsen, S. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Norepinephrine facilitates the development of the murine sweat response but is not essential. Tafari, A.T., Thomas, S.A., Palmiter, R.D. J. Neurosci. (1997) [Pubmed]
  34. CCR7, CCR8, CCR9 and CCR10 in the mouse hippocampal CA1 area and the dentate gyrus during and after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus. Liu, J.X., Cao, X., Tang, Y.C., Liu, Y., Tang, F.R. J. Neurochem. (2007) [Pubmed]
  35. Role of specific muscarinic receptor subtypes in cholinergic parasympathomimetic responses, in vivo phosphoinositide hydrolysis, and pilocarpine-induced seizure activity. Bymaster, F.P., Carter, P.A., Yamada, M., Gomeza, J., Wess, J., Hamilton, S.E., Nathanson, N.M., McKinzie, D.L., Felder, C.C. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  36. The inhibition of CYP enzymes in mouse and human liver by pilocarpine. Kimonen, T., Juvonen, R.O., Alhava, E., Pasanen, M. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  37. Cholinergic stimulation of immunoglobulin A secretion in rat intestine. Wilson, I.D., Soltis, R.D., Olson, R.E., Erlandsen, S.L. Gastroenterology (1982) [Pubmed]
  38. Immunocytochemical localization of amylase and chymotrypsinogen in the exocrine pancreatic cell with special attention to the Golgi complex. Geuze, J.J., Slot, J.W., Tokuyasu, K.T. J. Cell Biol. (1979) [Pubmed]
  39. Cystic fibrosis diagnosed after age 13. Twenty-five teenage and adult patients including three asymptomatic men. Stern, R.C., Boat, T.F., Doershuk, C.F., Tucker, A.S., Miller, R.B., Matthews, L.W. Ann. Intern. Med. (1977) [Pubmed]
  40. Aberrant seizure-induced neurogenesis in experimental temporal lobe epilepsy. Parent, J.M., Elliott, R.C., Pleasure, S.J., Barbaro, N.M., Lowenstein, D.H. Ann. Neurol. (2006) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities