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Chemical Compound Review

Arecolin     methyl1-methyl-5,6-dihydro- 2H-pyridine-3...

Synonyms: Arekolin, Arecaline, Arecholin, arecoline, Arecholine, ...
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Disease relevance of Methylarecaidin


Psychiatry related information on Methylarecaidin

  • Arecoline, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist, induced rapid eye movement sleep significantly more rapidly in patients with primary affective illness in remission than in normal control subjects matched for age and sex [6].
  • Human serial learning: enhancement with arecholine and choline impairment with scopolamine [7].
  • Multiple-dose arecoline infusions in Alzheimer's disease [8].
  • The cholinergic rapid eye movement (REM) induction test using arecoline hydrobromide, a cholinergic muscarinic receptor agonist, was studied in patients with affective disorder and in normal controls to determine whether or not depression is associated with enhanced induction of REM sleep by muscarinic agonists [9].
  • Twelve patients with dementia of the Alzheimer type received two-hour infusions of placebo and the muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline hydrobromide at rates of 1, 2, and 4 mg/h in a double-blind, randomized fashion [8].

High impact information on Methylarecaidin

  • AN extract (100-800 microg/ml) and arecoline (0.1-0.8 mM) also stimulated ERK1/ERK2 phosphorylation with a maximal stimulation at 5-10 min of exposure [10].
  • In addition, U0126 and PD98059 (50 microM) also decreased AN extract- and arecoline-associated PGE2 and IL-6 production in GK and KB cells [10].
  • We observed the induction of c-Fos mRNA expression in human gingival keratinocyte (GK) and KB carcinoma cells by areca nut (AN) extract and arecoline [10].
  • However, U0126 by itself arrested the cells in G0/G1 phase, but was not able to prevent AN- and arecoline-induced cell death or apoptosis [10].
  • To test the hypothesis that depression and REM sleep share common cholinergic mechanisms the authors administered arecoline 25 min after completion of the first REM period to 14 patients with remitted bipolar affective disorder, 15 normal controls, and 5 subjects with a personal or family history of affective disorder [11].

Chemical compound and disease context of Methylarecaidin


Biological context of Methylarecaidin


Anatomical context of Methylarecaidin


Associations of Methylarecaidin with other chemical compounds


Gene context of Methylarecaidin

  • In addition, arecoline was found to inhibit MMP-2 secretion and production at the concentration level of 40 microg/ml [27].
  • Arecoline was found to elevate TIMP-1 expression at the concentration level under 20 microg/ml in a dose-dependent manner [27].
  • Nicotine and arecoline therefore significantly increased IL-1 alpha and -1 beta secretions and the surface expression of ICAM-1 in KB CCL17 cells [28].
  • However, incubation of cells for 72 hrs in the presence of nicotine and/or arecoline treatments and antibody against IL-1 alpha or IL-1 beta significantly increased cell growth as compared with the antibody free one [29].
  • The regulation of COX-2 expression induced by arecoline is critically dependent on the cellular GSH concentration [30].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Methylarecaidin


  1. Treatment of Huntington disease with a cholinergic agonist. Nutt, J.G., Rosin, A., Chase, T.N. Neurology (1978) [Pubmed]
  2. Roles of keratinocyte inflammation in oral cancer: regulating the prostaglandin E2, interleukin-6 and TNF-alpha production of oral epithelial cells by areca nut extract and arecoline. Jeng, J.H., Wang, Y.J., Chiang, B.L., Lee, P.H., Chan, C.P., Ho, Y.S., Wang, T.M., Lee, J.J., Hahn, L.J., Chang, M.C. Carcinogenesis (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Memory improvement without toxicity during chronic, low dose intravenous arecoline in Alzheimer's disease. Soncrant, T.T., Raffaele, K.C., Asthana, S., Berardi, A., Morris, P.P., Haxby, J.V. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1993) [Pubmed]
  4. Pharmacological evaluation of purified component and whole-cell pertussis vaccine in the cardiovascular system of rats. de Wildt, D.J., de Jong, Y., Nijkamp, F.P., Kreeftenberg, J.G. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1985) [Pubmed]
  5. Mediation by the same muscarinic receptor subtype of phasic and tonic contractile activities in the rat isolated portal vein. Pfaffendorf, M., Van Zwieten, P.A. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  6. Faster cholinergic REM sleep induction in euthymic patients with primary affective illness. Sitaram, N., Nurnberger, J.I., Gershon, E.S., Gillin, J.C. Science (1980) [Pubmed]
  7. Human serial learning: enhancement with arecholine and choline impairment with scopolamine. Sitaram, N., Weingartner, H., Gillin, J.C. Science (1978) [Pubmed]
  8. Multiple-dose arecoline infusions in Alzheimer's disease. Tariot, P.N., Cohen, R.M., Welkowitz, J.A., Sunderland, T., Newhouse, P.A., Murphy, D.L., Weingartner, H. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1988) [Pubmed]
  9. The cholinergic rapid eye movement induction test with arecoline in depression. Gillin, J.C., Sutton, L., Ruiz, C., Kelsoe, J., Dupont, R.M., Darko, D., Risch, S.C., Golshan, S., Janowsky, D. Arch. Gen. Psychiatry (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. The induction of prostaglandin E2 production, interleukin-6 production, cell cycle arrest, and cytotoxicity in primary oral keratinocytes and KB cancer cells by areca nut ingredients is differentially regulated by MEK/ERK activation. Chang, M.C., Wu, H.L., Lee, J.J., Lee, P.H., Chang, H.H., Hahn, L.J., Lin, B.R., Chen, Y.J., Jeng, J.H. J. Biol. Chem. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Cholinergic regulation of mood and REM sleep: potential model and marker of vulnerability to affective disorder. Sitaram, N., Nurnberger, J.I., Gershon, E.S., Gillin, J.C. The American journal of psychiatry. (1982) [Pubmed]
  12. Electroconvulsive shock reduces the cataleptogenic effect of both haloperidol and arecoline in rats. Green, A.R., Bloomfield, M.R., Atterwill, C.K., Costain, D.W. Neuropharmacology (1979) [Pubmed]
  13. Attenuation of scopolamine-induced amnesia in mice. Stone, W.S., Croul, C.E., Gold, P.E. Psychopharmacology (Berl.) (1988) [Pubmed]
  14. Differential responsivity of mood, behavior, and cognition to cholinergic agents in elderly neuropsychiatric populations. Sunderland, T., Tariot, P.N., Newhouse, P.A. Brain Res. (1988) [Pubmed]
  15. Pontine reticular formation is involved in catalepsy produced by cholinergic drugs. Elazar, Z., Ganchrow, D., Paz, M. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1997) [Pubmed]
  16. Subclassification of muscarinic receptors in the heart, urinary bladder and sympathetic ganglia in the pithed rat. Selectivity of some classical agonists. van Charldorp, K.J., de Jonge, A., Thoolen, M.J., van Zwieten, P.A. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch. Pharmacol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  17. Clinical pharmacokinetics of arecoline in subjects with Alzheimer's disease. Asthana, S., Greig, N.H., Holloway, H.W., Raffaele, K.C., Berardi, A., Schapiro, M.B., Rapoport, S.I., Soncrant, T.T. Clin. Pharmacol. Ther. (1996) [Pubmed]
  18. A twin study of cholinergic REM induction. Nurnberger, J., Sitaram, N., Gershon, E.S., Gillin, J.C. Biol. Psychiatry (1983) [Pubmed]
  19. Areca nut extract and arecoline induced the cell cycle arrest but not apoptosis of cultured oral KB epithelial cells: association of glutathione, reactive oxygen species and mitochondrial membrane potential. Chang, M.C., Ho, Y.S., Lee, P.H., Chan, C.P., Lee, J.J., Hahn, L.J., Wang, Y.J., Jeng, J.H. Carcinogenesis (2001) [Pubmed]
  20. The GAR-3 muscarinic receptor cooperates with calcium signals to regulate muscle contraction in the Caenorhabditis elegans pharynx. Steger, K.A., Avery, L. Genetics (2004) [Pubmed]
  21. Preferential in vivo incorporation of [3H]arachidonic acid from blood in rat brain synaptosomal fractions before and after cholinergic stimulation. Jones, C.R., Arai, T., Bell, J.M., Rapoport, S.I. J. Neurochem. (1996) [Pubmed]
  22. The muscarinic cholinergic agonist arecoline stimulates the rat hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis through a centrally-mediated corticotropin-releasing hormone-dependent mechanism. Calogero, A.E., Kamilaris, T.C., Gomez, M.T., Johnson, E.O., Tartaglia, M.E., Gold, P.W., Chrousos, G.P. Endocrinology (1989) [Pubmed]
  23. The influence of adrenergic, dopaminergic, cholinergic and serotoninergic drugs on plasma prolactin levels in ovariectomized, estrogen-treated rats. Lawson, D.M., Gala, R.R. Endocrinology (1975) [Pubmed]
  24. Mutagenicity of betel quid and its ingredients using mammalian test systems. Shirname, L.P., Menon, M.M., Bhide, S.V. Carcinogenesis (1984) [Pubmed]
  25. Characterization of muscarinic cholinergic receptors in the crab nervous system. Barker, D.L., Murray, T.F., Siebenaller, J.F., Mpitsos, G.J. J. Neurochem. (1986) [Pubmed]
  26. Arecoline desensitizes carbachol-stimulated phosphatidylinositol breakdown in rat brain cortices. Lee, H.M., Tsai, K.J., Lin, C.H., Huang, C.L., Tung, C.S. J. Neurochem. (1998) [Pubmed]
  27. Increased tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 expression and inhibition of gelatinase A activity in buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline as possible mechanisms for oral submucous fibrosis. Chang, Y.C., Yang, S.F., Tai, K.W., Chou, M.Y., Hsieh, Y.S. Oral Oncol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  28. Nicotine- and arecoline-induced interleukin-1 secretion and intercellular adhesion molecular-1 expression in human oral epidermoid carcinoma cells in vitro. Cheng, Y.A., Tsai, C.C. Arch. Oral Biol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  29. Interleukin-8 secretion by cultured oral epidermoid carcinoma cells induced with nicotine and/or arecoline treatments. Cheng, Y.A., Shiue, L.F., Yu, H.S., Hsieh, T.Y., Tsai, C.C. The Kaohsiung journal of medical sciences. (2000) [Pubmed]
  30. The up-regulation of cyclooxygenase-2 expression in human buccal mucosal fibroblasts by arecoline: a possible role in the pathogenesis of oral submucous fibrosis. Tsai, C.H., Chou, M.Y., Chang, Y.C. J. Oral Pathol. Med. (2003) [Pubmed]
  31. Cholinergic REM induction response: separation of anxiety and depression. Dubé, S., Kumar, N., Ettedgui, E., Pohl, R., Jones, D., Sitaram, N. Biol. Psychiatry (1985) [Pubmed]
  32. Arecoline-stimulated brain incorporation of intravenously administered fatty acids in unanesthetized rats. DeGeorge, J.J., Nariai, T., Yamazaki, S., Williams, W.M., Rapoport, S.I. J. Neurochem. (1991) [Pubmed]
  33. Impaired autonomic responsiveness of the cardiovascular system of the rat induced by a heat-labile component of Bordetella pertussis vaccine. de Wildt, D.J., Kreeftenberg, H.G., Nijkamp, F.P. Infect. Immun. (1983) [Pubmed]
  34. Potentiation by viral respiratory infection of ovalbumin-induced guinea-pig tracheal hyperresponsiveness: role for tachykinins. Ladenius, A.R., Folkerts, G., van der Linde, H.J., Nijkamp, F.P. Br. J. Pharmacol. (1995) [Pubmed]
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