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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

The pathophysiology of the ocular microenvironment. II. Copper-induced ocular inflammation and hypotony.

The ocular effects of intravitreally injected copper sulfate solutions were studied in New Zealand white rabbits. These injections resulted in uveitis characterized by prolonged ocular hypotony, increased protein concentrations and decreased ascorbic acid concentrations in both the vitreous and aqueous humors, and an apparent decrease in the transport function of the anterior uvea. The extent and the duration of these effects were dose-dependent. The lower doses used, 3 or 6 micrograms of Cu as CuSO4 per eye, produced reversible inflammation. The highest dose, 30 micrograms of Cu per eye, also produced some signs of ocular chalcosis: hemorrhage, vitreous liquefaction, prolonged hypotony and local iridial ischemia. Six hours after the intravitreal injection of 6 micrograms of Cu as CuSO4 per eye, the Cu concentration in the vitreous humor increased to approximately 100 times that in the vitreous of control eyes, and began to decline only 3 days later, with a half-time of approximately 8 days. The Cu concentration in the anterior chamber of these eyes never exceeded 1 ppm and returned close to control values within 3 days. Based on these findings, factors that affect ocular trace-metal distribution and kinetics are discussed, as are reasons for the apparent difficulty in diagnosing the presence of Cu-containing intraocular foreign bodies on the basis of the Cu concentration of the aqueous humor.[1]


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