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MeSH Review

Aqueous Humor

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Disease relevance of Aqueous Humor


High impact information on Aqueous Humor

  • These results indicate that the normal transport activity of NBC-1 is indispensable not only for the maintenance of corneal and lenticular transparency but also for the regulation of aqueous humor outflow [6].
  • MTMR13 may be important for the development of both the peripheral nerves and the trabeculum meshwork, which permits the outflow of the aqueous humor [7].
  • Northern hybridization analysis showed strong expression of CYP1B1 in the anterior uveal tract, which is involved in secretion of the aqueous humor and in regulation of outflow facility, processes that could contribute to the elevated intraocular pressure characteristic of PCG [8].
  • The regional and subcellular distribution of V-ATPase in specific regions of the ciliary process was altered profoundly by isoproterenol and phorbol esters, suggesting that change in the intracellular distribution of the enzyme is a mechanism by which drugs, hormones, and neurotransmitters modify aqueous humor production [9].
  • Such damage was attenuated by vitamin C in amounts comparable to that in the aqueous humor [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Aqueous Humor


Biological context of Aqueous Humor


Anatomical context of Aqueous Humor


Associations of Aqueous Humor with chemical compounds


Gene context of Aqueous Humor

  • TSP1 is also present in the intraocular fluids and drainage pathway, where it may function in maintaining the anti-angiogenic environment and in intraocular pressure control, respectively [30].
  • Treatment with IL-13 decreased nitrite levels in aqueous humor and enhanced the expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and IL-6 mRNA in ocular tissues [31].
  • Tissue plasminogen activator activity in human aqueous humor [32].
  • To quantify the basal free t-PA activity in human aqueous humor [33].
  • Efficient inhibition was observed against all three isozymes, but especially against CA II and IV (in nanomolar range), the two isozymes known to play a critical role in aqueous humor secretion within the ciliary processes of the eye [34].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Aqueous Humor


  1. Increased ocular levels of IGF-1 in transgenic mice lead to diabetes-like eye disease. Ruberte, J., Ayuso, E., Navarro, M., Carretero, A., Nacher, V., Haurigot, V., George, M., Llombart, C., Casellas, A., Costa, C., Bosch, A., Bosch, F. J. Clin. Invest. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Low content of the natural ocular anti-angiogenic agent pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) in aqueous humor predicts progression of diabetic retinopathy. Boehm, B.O., Lang, G., Volpert, O., Jehle, P.M., Kurkhaus, A., Rosinger, S., Lang, G.K., Bouck, N. Diabetologia (2003) [Pubmed]
  3. Cellular lipid peroxidation end-products induce apoptosis in human lens epithelial cells. Choudhary, S., Zhang, W., Zhou, F., Campbell, G.A., Chan, L.L., Thompson, E.B., Ansari, N.H. Free Radic. Biol. Med. (2002) [Pubmed]
  4. Role of nitric oxide synthase isozymes in endotoxin-induced uveitis. Mandai, M., Mittag, T.W., Kogishi, J., Iwaki, M., Hangai, M., Yoshimura, N. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1996) [Pubmed]
  5. Effects of TGF-beta2 in perfused human eyes. Gottanka, J., Chan, D., Eichhorn, M., Lütjen-Drecoll, E., Ethier, C.R. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2004) [Pubmed]
  6. Molecular basis of ocular abnormalities associated with proximal renal tubular acidosis. Usui, T., Hara, M., Satoh, H., Moriyama, N., Kagaya, H., Amano, S., Oshika, T., Ishii, Y., Ibaraki, N., Hara, C., Kunimi, M., Noiri, E., Tsukamoto, K., Inatomi, J., Kawakami, H., Endou, H., Igarashi, T., Goto, A., Fujita, T., Araie, M., Seki, G. J. Clin. Invest. (2001) [Pubmed]
  7. Mutations in MTMR13, a new pseudophosphatase homologue of MTMR2 and Sbf1, in two families with an autosomal recessive demyelinating form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease associated with early-onset glaucoma. Azzedine, H., Bolino, A., Taïeb, T., Birouk, N., Di Duca, M., Bouhouche, A., Benamou, S., Mrabet, A., Hammadouche, T., Chkili, T., Gouider, R., Ravazzolo, R., Brice, A., Laporte, J., LeGuern, E. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2003) [Pubmed]
  8. Sequence analysis and homology modeling suggest that primary congenital glaucoma on 2p21 results from mutations disrupting either the hinge region or the conserved core structures of cytochrome P4501B1. Stoilov, I., Akarsu, A.N., Alozie, I., Child, A., Barsoum-Homsy, M., Turacli, M.E., Or, M., Lewis, R.A., Ozdemir, N., Brice, G., Aktan, S.G., Chevrette, L., Coca-Prados, M., Sarfarazi, M. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (1998) [Pubmed]
  9. Vacuolar H+-ATPase in ocular ciliary epithelium. Wax, M.B., Saito, I., Tenkova, T., Krupin, T., Becker, B., Nelson, N., Brown, D., Gluck, S.L. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1997) [Pubmed]
  10. Light-induced damage to ocular lens cation pump: prevention by vitamin C. Varma, S.D., Kumar, S., Richards, R.D. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1979) [Pubmed]
  11. The insensitivity of the chicken eye to the inflammatory effects of x-rays in contrast to its sensitivity to other inflammatory agents. Stetz, D.E., Bito, L.Z. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1978) [Pubmed]
  12. Effect of ibopamine on aqueous humor production in normotensive humans. McLaren, J.W., Herman, D.C., Brubaker, R.F., Nau, C.B., Wayman, L.L., Ciarniello, M.G., Rosignoli, M.T., Dionisio, P. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  13. Acute effect of thymoxamine on aqueous humor formation in the epinephrine-treated normal eye as measured by fluorophotometry. Lee, D.A., Brubaker, R.F., Nagataki, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  14. Aqueous humor messengers in the transient decrease of intraocular pressure after ganglionectomy. Liu, J.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Photophysical studies on melatonin and its receptor agonists. Roberts, J.E., Hu, D.N., Martinez, L., Chignell, C.F. J. Pineal Res. (2000) [Pubmed]
  16. Topical glucocorticoid therapy directly induces up-regulation of functional CXCR4 on primed T lymphocytes in the aqueous humor of patients with uveitis. Curnow, S.J., Wloka, K., Faint, J.M., Amft, N., Cheung, C.M., Savant, V., Lord, J., Akbar, A.N., Buckley, C.D., Murray, P.I., Salmon, M. J. Immunol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  17. Comparison of prostaglandin F2alpha, bimatoprost (prostamide), and butaprost (EP2 agonist) on Cyr61 and connective tissue growth factor gene expression. Liang, Y., Li, C., Guzman, V.M., Evinger, A.J., Protzman, C.E., Krauss, A.H., Woodward, D.F. J. Biol. Chem. (2003) [Pubmed]
  18. Pharmacokinetics of amikacin and chloramphenicol in the aqueous humor of rabbits. Mayers, M., Rush, D., Madu, A., Motyl, M., Miller, M.H. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (1991) [Pubmed]
  19. Bioavailability and corneal anti-inflammatory effect of topical suprofen. Leibowitz, H.M., Ryan, W.J., Kupferman, A., DeSantis, L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  20. Effects of intravitreal cholera toxin on adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate, intraocular pressure, and outflow facility in rabbits. Bartels, S.P., Roth, H.O., Neufeld, A.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1981) [Pubmed]
  21. Ascorbate in aqueous humor protects against myeloperoxidase-induced oxidation. Rosenbaum, J.T., Howes, E.L., English, D. Am. J. Pathol. (1985) [Pubmed]
  22. Neuropeptides modulate immune deviation induced via the anterior chamber of the eye. Ferguson, T.A., Fletcher, S., Herndon, J., Griffith, T.S. J. Immunol. (1995) [Pubmed]
  23. Chloride secretion by bovine ciliary epithelium: a model of aqueous humor formation. Do, C.W., To, C.H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2000) [Pubmed]
  24. Glutathione in calf trabecular meshwork and its relation to aqueous humor outflow facility. Kahn, M.G., Giblin, F.J., Epstein, D.L. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1983) [Pubmed]
  25. Ultracytochemical localization of the erythrocyte/HepG2-type glucose transporter (GLUT1) in the ciliary body and iris of the rat eye. Takata, K., Kasahara, T., Kasahara, M., Ezaki, O., Hirano, H. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1991) [Pubmed]
  26. Evidence for the presence of serotonergic nerves and receptors in the iris-ciliary body complex of the rabbit. Tobin, A.B., Unger, W., Osborne, N.N. J. Neurosci. (1988) [Pubmed]
  27. Diabetes and the myo-inositol paradox. Loy, A., Lurie, K.G., Ghosh, A., Wilson, J.M., MacGregor, L.C., Matschinsky, F.M. Diabetes (1990) [Pubmed]
  28. Quantitative vitreous fluorophotometry. A sensitive technique for measuring early breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier in young diabetic patients. Waltman, S.R., Oestrich, C., Krupin, T., Hanish, S., Ratzan, S., Santiago, J., Kilo, C. Diabetes (1978) [Pubmed]
  29. Distribution of salicylate in lens and intraocular fluids and its effect on cataract formation. Cotlier, E., Sharma, Y.R., Niven, T., Brescia, M. Am. J. Med. (1983) [Pubmed]
  30. Thrombospondin 1, thrombospondin 2 and the eye. Hiscott, P., Paraoan, L., Choudhary, A., Ordonez, J.L., Al-Khaier, A., Armstrong, D.J. Progress in retinal and eye research. (2006) [Pubmed]
  31. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced uveitis and potentiation of local TNF-alpha and interleukin-6 mRNA expression by interleukin-13. Marie, O., Thillaye-Goldenberg, B., Naud, M.C., de Kozak, Y. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  32. Tissue plasminogen activator activity in human aqueous humor. Smalley, D.M., Fitzgerald, J.E., Taylor, D.M., Cone, R.E., O'Rourke, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  33. Increased basal levels of free plasminogen activator activity found in human aqueous humor. Wang, Y., Taylor, D.M., Smalley, D.M., Cone, R.E., O'Rourke, J. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1994) [Pubmed]
  34. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. Synthesis of water-soluble, topically effective, intraocular pressure-lowering aromatic/heterocyclic sulfonamides containing cationic or anionic moieties: is the tail more important than the ring? Scozzafava, A., Menabuoni, L., Mincione, F., Briganti, F., Mincione, G., Supuran, C.T. J. Med. Chem. (1999) [Pubmed]
  35. Myocilin mutations causing glaucoma inhibit the intracellular endoproteolytic cleavage of myocilin between amino acids Arg226 and Ile227. Aroca-Aguilar, J.D., Sánchez-Sánchez, F., Ghosh, S., Coca-Prados, M., Escribano, J. J. Biol. Chem. (2005) [Pubmed]
  36. Contributions of adenosine receptor activation to the ocular actions of epinephrine. Crosson, C.E., Petrovich, M. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  37. Effect of human cationic antimicrobial protein 18 Peptide on endotoxin-induced uveitis in rats. Ohgami, K., Ilieva, I.B., Shiratori, K., Isogai, E., Yoshida, K., Kotake, S., Nishida, T., Mizuki, N., Ohno, S. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (2003) [Pubmed]
  38. Estimation of corneal endothelial pump function in long-term contact lens wearers. Bourne, W.M., Hodge, D.O., McLaren, J.W. Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. (1999) [Pubmed]
  39. Penetration of linezolid into the anterior chamber (aqueous humor) of the human eye after intravenous administration. Vázquez, E.G., Mensa, J., López, Y., Couchard, P.D., Soy, D., Fontenla, J.R., Sarasa, M., Carné, X., Montull, E. Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. (2004) [Pubmed]
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