The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Lack of inhibition by retinoids of bis(2-oxopropyl)nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters.

Syrian hamsters were treated with either a low (10 mg/kg body weight) or high (40 mg/kg body weight) single dose of bis(2-oxopropyl)nitrosamine (BOP) and beginning 1 week later fed either low (0.2 mmol/kg diet) or high (0.4-1.0 mmol/kg diet) levels of one of four retinoids [13 cis retinoic acid (13-cis-RA), N-ethylretinamide (ERA), N-(2-hydroxyethyl)retinamide (OHERA) or N-(phenyl)retinamide ( PRA)] for periods of 40 or 50 weeks. The high retinoid levels (0.4-1.0 mmol/kg diet) fed following the highest BOP treatment enhanced pancreatic carcinoma yields (average number/effective animal) in males fed all four retinoids, and in females fed ERA and 13-cis-RA. Enhanced adenoma yields were also seen in all groups when high retinoid levels were fed following 40 mg BOP/kg body weight. However, these retinoid levels caused an increased adenoma yield in male hamsters only and did not modify carcinoma yields when fed following 10 mg BOP/kg body weight. Similarly, tumor yields at extra-pancreatic sites were elevated in retinoid-fed hamsters of both sexes after 40 mg BOP/kg body weight and in males fed ERA and 13-cis-RA after 10 mg BOP/kg body weight when retinoids were given at the high levels (0.4-1.0 mmol/kg diet). Increased incidences of bile duct and liver tumors in particular were found in hamsters given 40 mg BOP/kg body weight. Consumption of retinoid levels of 0.4 mmol/kg diet and above was also associated with a high incidence of liver cell necrosis, ovarian cysts and ovarian hemorrhage. Retinoids (ERA, OHERA, and PRA) fed at the low level (0.2 mmol/kg diet) following the low BOP dose did not enhance carcinogenesis in the pancreas or at other sites and did not cause alterations in morphologic observations.[1]


  1. Lack of inhibition by retinoids of bis(2-oxopropyl)nitrosamine-induced carcinogenesis in Syrian hamsters. Birt, D.F., Davies, M.H., Pour, P.M., Salmasi, S. Carcinogenesis (1983) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities