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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Convulsant activity of pyridoxal sulphate and phosphonoethyl pyridoxal: antagonism by GABA and its synthetic analogues.

Pyridoxal phosphate and its synthetic analogues--pyridoxal 5'-sulphate and the 5-phosphonoethyl analogue of pyridoxal (phosphonoethyl pyridoxal) in doses of 0.125-0.250 (mumol/10 microliters/i.c.v./rat), caused epileptic seizures characterized by running fits, vocalization, muscular fasciculation and tonic-clonic convulsions. These effects were specific and could not be demonstrated with 5'-deoxypyridoxal, N-methylpyridoxal phosphate or the 5-trans-carboxyethenyl analogue of pyridoxal phosphate (carboxyethenyl pyridoxal). Structure-activity relationships of these analogues indicated that the presence of a CHO in position 4 of the pyridine ring was essential, since its conversion to CH2NH2 or CH2OH abolished activity. The presence of an unsubstituted N was essential, since convulsions did not occur with N-methylpyridoxal phosphate. The presence of the hydroxyl group in position 5' was essential since 5'-deoxypyridoxal was inactive. The convulsive activity was potentiated in the presence of both CHO and PO4, CHO and CH2--CH2PO2-4 but especially CHO and --OSO23-- groups. This seizure activity was prevented, attenuated or reversed by intracerebroventricular administration of 20 microliter of GABA (1 mumol), muscimol (0.025 mumol), trans-4-aminocrotonic acid (0.25 mumol), isoguvacine (0.25 mumol) or THIP (0.25 mumol), but not by biogenic amines. An understanding of the mechanism of pyridoxal phosphate-related seizures may provide additional insights not only about GABA receptor sites but also about the biochemical manifestation and expression of epilepsy.[1]


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