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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Toxicology of aflatoxin B1, warfarin, and cadmium in young pigs: clinical chemistry and blood coagulation.

The purpose of this experiment was to compare the toxic effects of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and warfarin in pigs and to determine whether these have an additive effect in these pigs fed dietary Cd. Cadmium was provided daily through the diets of 2 concentrations (0 or control, and 83 micrograms/g of diet) during the 40 days of the experiment. At the start of the 5th week, AFB1 and warfarin were given in 5 daily doses (each dose 0.2 mg/kg of body weight) and the effects were determined for 10 days (starting with the 1st treatment day). Aflatoxin B1 given to the pigs fed the control diet (0 Cd) was toxic, inducing significantly increased alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, and aspartate aminotransferase activities and the prothrombin time (PT) and activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and significantly decreased values in serum total protein, alpha-globulin, beta-globulin, gamma-globulin, and fibrinogen. There was no effect on blood urea nitrogen. The treatment with warfarin was more effective in producing earlier and significantly longer PT and APTT. In the pigs fed the diet with the added Cd, differences in activity of alkaline phosphatase, sorbitol dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase values, but not blood urea nitrogen, as well as differences in intensity and duration of response in PT and APTT occurred when pigs were dosed daily for 5 days after AFB1 or warfarin. It is concluded that dietary Cd (83 micrograms/g of diet) in young pigs has an inhibitory effect on AFB1 toxicity and an enhancing synergistic effect with warfarin.[1]


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