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Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Congenital toxoplasmosis associated with acquired oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy.

A nine-week-old Caucasian male presented with right ptosis and right exotropia due to a third cranial nerve palsy. Symmetrical macular lesions and a paramacular hyperpigmented lesion with overlying vitreous cells in the left eye were compatible with congenital toxoplasmosis. Computer tomography demonstrated calcifications in the periventricular and midbrain regions where the oculomotor nerve exits the brainstem. The diagnosis was confirmed by the toxoplasma indirect fluorescent antibody titer greater than 1:2048 for the infant and greater than 1:512 for the mother. Treatment was instituted with pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine and folinic acid. Neurologic sequelae included a right hemiparesis, infantile seizures, and generalized developmental delay. A Mueller's muscle resection (RUL) combined with 9-mm recession of the right lateral rectus and 7-mm resection of the right medial rectus muscles produced minimal ptosis and right exotropia one year later. the child now prefers to fix with the right eye and a vertical nystagmus is evident in the left eye. To our knowledge this is the first reported case of an infant with noncomitant strabismus due to congenital toxoplasma cranial nerve involvement. The finding of an acquired third cranial nerve palsy accompanied by progressive neurologic sequelae warrants consideration of congenital toxoplasmosis.[1]


  1. Congenital toxoplasmosis associated with acquired oculomotor nerve (CN III) palsy. Perry, D.D., Marritt, J.C., Greenwood, R.S., Collier, A.M., Tennison, M.B. Journal of pediatric ophthalmology and strabismus. (1982) [Pubmed]
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