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MeSH Review


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Disease relevance of Exotropia


Psychiatry related information on Exotropia

  • PURPOSE: Although there have been studies in the past of the difference between distance and near stereopsis in intermittent exotropia, no such comparisons have been studied and/or reported for other forms of strabismus, nor for strabismic functional amblyopia, or for refractive functional amblyopia [6].

High impact information on Exotropia

  • We identified frequent deletion/insertion polymorphisms in the 20-alanine homopolymer stretch of PMX2B, with a modest association between these functional polymorphisms and constant exotropia in schizophrenia (P=0.029) [7].
  • This study reveals that a subtype of strabismus, constant exotropia, displays marked association with schizophrenia (P=0.00000000906) [7].
  • Nalbuphine produced exophoria and impairment on the Digit Symbol Substitution Test in a dose-related fashion [8].
  • As expected, the inactivation of medial rectus motoneurons resulted in an exophoria and weakness of adduction for the eye ipsilateral to the lidocaine injection [9].
  • Does overcorrecting minus lens therapy for intermittent exotropia cause myopia [10]?

Chemical compound and disease context of Exotropia

  • BACKGROUND: Classic teaching suggests that surgery for intermittent exotropia should be based on distance/near differences [11].
  • Haloperidol alone proved inert on performance but enhanced the decremental effects of nalbuphine on digit substitution and exophoria at 1 h [12].
  • Prifinium bromide was administered for eight weeks to three patients with exotropia [13].
  • The Newcastle Control Score: a new method of grading the severity of intermittent distance exotropia [14].
  • The higher dose dexmedetomidine also caused impaired cognitive, coordinative and reactive skills (although a trend towards improved coordination was found at 6 h), reduced attention, produced exophoria, increased body sway with the eyes open and caused drowsiness, clumsiness, passiveness and mental slowness on the appropriate VAS scales [15].

Biological context of Exotropia


Anatomical context of Exotropia


Gene context of Exotropia

  • Main outcome measure: Presence or absence of mutation in PHOX2A gene in two siblings with exotropia and recessive CFEOM [19].
  • The amount of aggrecan may be related to motor aspects of intermittent exotropia [20].
  • The second was that there was a regression from the full exophoria position toward the midline while the eye was under cover that correlated with a possible paradoxical projection situation [21].
  • Most were orthotropic, but one with SCA-3 had exotropia at near [22].
  • RESULTS: A 10-month-old healthy boy presented with intermittent right exotropia [23].


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  2. Cyclic esotropia developing after sttstrabismus surgery. Muchnick, R.S., Sanfilippo, S., Dunlap, E.A. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1976) [Pubmed]
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  4. Unique X-linked mental retardation syndrome with fingertip arches and contractures linked to Xq21.31. Miles, J.H., Carpenter, N.J. Am. J. Med. Genet. (1991) [Pubmed]
  5. Bilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia after intrathecal chemotherapy and cranial irradiation. Lepore, F.E., Nissenblatt, M.J. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1981) [Pubmed]
  6. BVAT distance vs. near stereopsis screening of strabismus, strabismic amblyopia and refractive amblyopia; a prospective study of 68 patients. Rutstein, R.P., Corliss, D.A. Binocular vision & strabismus quarterly. (2000) [Pubmed]
  7. Association between schizophrenia with ocular misalignment and polyalanine length variation in PMX2B. Toyota, T., Yoshitsugu, K., Ebihara, M., Yamada, K., Ohba, H., Fukasawa, M., Minabe, Y., Nakamura, K., Sekine, Y., Takei, N., Suzuki, K., Itokawa, M., Meerabux, J.M., Iwayama-Shigeno, Y., Tomaru, Y., Shimizu, H., Hattori, E., Mori, N., Yoshikawa, T. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  8. Comparing the subjective, psychomotor and physiological effects of intravenous nalbuphine and morphine in healthy volunteers. Zacny, J.P., Conley, K., Marks, S. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. (1997) [Pubmed]
  9. Characteristics of antidromically identified oculomotor internuclear neurons during vergence and versional eye movements. Clendaniel, R.A., Mays, L.E. J. Neurophysiol. (1994) [Pubmed]
  10. Does overcorrecting minus lens therapy for intermittent exotropia cause myopia? Kushner, B.J. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  11. Selective surgery for intermittent exotropia based on distance/near differences. Kushner, B.J. Arch. Ophthalmol. (1998) [Pubmed]
  12. Psychomotor, respiratory and neuroendocrinological effects of nalbuphine and haloperidol, alone and in combination, in healthy subjects. Saarialho-Kere, U. British journal of clinical pharmacology. (1988) [Pubmed]
  13. The magician's forceps phenomenon in exotropia under general anaesthesia. Tamura, O., Mitsui, Y. The British journal of ophthalmology. (1986) [Pubmed]
  14. The Newcastle Control Score: a new method of grading the severity of intermittent distance exotropia. Haggerty, H., Richardson, S., Hrisos, S., Strong, N.P., Clarke, M.P. The British journal of ophthalmology. (2004) [Pubmed]
  15. Effect of dexmedetomidine and midazolam on human performance and mood. Mattila, M.J., Mattila, M.E., Olkkola, K.T., Scheinin, H. Eur. J. Clin. Pharmacol. (1991) [Pubmed]
  16. The importance of multiple treatment modalities in a case of divergence excess. Frantz, K.A. Journal of the American Optometric Association. (1990) [Pubmed]
  17. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension in prepubertal pediatric patients: characteristics, treatment, and outcome. Cinciripini, G.S., Donahue, S., Borchert, M.S. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (1999) [Pubmed]
  18. Simultaneous correction of blepharoptosis and exotropia in aberrant regeneration of the oculomotor nerve by strabismus surgery: a new, simplified ptosis correction for selected cases. O'Donnell, F.E., Del Monte, M., Guyton, D.L. Ophthalmic surgery. (1980) [Pubmed]
  19. A novel PHOX2A/ARIX mutation in an Iranian family with congenital fibrosis of extraocular muscles type 2 (CFEOM2). Yazdani, A., Chung, D.C., Abbaszadegan, M.R., Al-Khayer, K., Chan, W.M., Yazdani, M., Ghodsi, K., Engle, E.C., Traboulsi, E.I. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
  20. Clinical correlations of aggrecan in the resected medial rectus muscle of patients with intermittent exotropia. Yamane, T., Matsuo, T., Hasebe, S., Ohtsuki, H. Acta Med. Okayama (2003) [Pubmed]
  21. Temporal influences on retinal correspondence: ocular motor findings in paradoxical spatial projection. Zivotofsky, A.Z., Schrader, S.R. Optometry and vision science : official publication of the American Academy of Optometry. (2004) [Pubmed]
  22. Ocular motility in genetically defined autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxia. Durig, J.S., Jen, J.C., Demer, J.L. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Bilateral optic disk melanocytoma in a 10-month-old infant. Demirci, H., Shields, C.L., Shields, J.A. Am. J. Ophthalmol. (2003) [Pubmed]
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