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MeSH Review

Cranial Nerves

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Disease relevance of Cranial Nerves


High impact information on Cranial Nerves

  • LHRH-expressing neurons are also found in the nervus terminalis, a cranial nerve that is a part of the accessory olfactory system and which projects directly from the nose to the septal-preoptic nuclei in the brain [6].
  • Hybridization histochemistry reveals a similar distribution of alpha- and beta-CGRP mRNA's, but their relative levels of expression vary in different cranial nerve nuclei [7].
  • Taken together, these results suggest that the molecular program governing the development and maintenance of the VIIth cranial nerve is dependent upon Hoxb1, both in the neural crest-derived glia and in the facial branchiomotor neurons [8].
  • In addition, radioligand binding at multiple sites of transient expression of AII receptors in 2-week-old rats, including several thalamic nuclei, the nuclei of the 3rd and 12th cranial nerves, geniculate bodies, cerebellum, and cingulate cortex, was displaced by the AT2 antagonists but not by DuP 753 [9].
  • Loss of the Sall3 gene leads to palate deficiency, abnormalities in cranial nerves, and perinatal lethality [10].

Chemical compound and disease context of Cranial Nerves


Biological context of Cranial Nerves


Anatomical context of Cranial Nerves


Associations of Cranial Nerves with chemical compounds


Gene context of Cranial Nerves

  • Furthermore, fusions of cranial nerves IX and X and defects in cranial nerve V were apparent in some Lmo4(-/-) and Lmo4(+/-) mice [30].
  • However, using an RNA rescue approach, we reveal that these duplicated genes do not have interchangeable biochemical functions: only hoxb1a can properly pattern the VIIth cranial nerve [22].
  • This finding further supports the role of EGR2 in cranial nerve development [31].
  • DM20 is expressed in the CNS only, while MBP transcripts are detected both in the CNS and in Schwann cells of the lateral line, cranial nerves, and spinal motor nerves [32].
  • No specific immunoreactivity for BDNF or NT-3 was detected on the day of birth (P0) in any auditory structure, although fibers comprising the spinal tract of the Vth cranial nerve were well labelled with antibodies against BDNF [33].

Analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic context of Cranial Nerves


  1. Unique clinical and pathological features in HLA-DRB1*0401-restricted MBP 111-129-specific humanized TCR transgenic mice. Quandt, J.A., Baig, M., Yao, K., Kawamura, K., Huh, J., Ludwin, S.K., Bian, H.J., Bryant, M., Quigley, L., Nagy, Z.A., McFarland, H.F., Muraro, P.A., Martin, R., Ito, K. J. Exp. Med. (2004) [Pubmed]
  2. Neuropilin-2 is required in vivo for selective axon guidance responses to secreted semaphorins. Giger, R.J., Cloutier, J.F., Sahay, A., Prinjha, R.K., Levengood, D.V., Moore, S.E., Pickering, S., Simmons, D., Rastan, S., Walsh, F.S., Kolodkin, A.L., Ginty, D.D., Geppert, M. Neuron (2000) [Pubmed]
  3. The clinical features of sclerosteosis. A review of the manifestations in twenty-five affected individuals. Beighton, P., Durr, L., Hamersma, H. Ann. Intern. Med. (1976) [Pubmed]
  4. Genotype-phenotype correlations for nervous system tumors in neurofibromatosis 2: a population-based study. Baser, M.E., Kuramoto, L., Joe, H., Friedman, J.M., Wallace, A.J., Gillespie, J.E., Ramsden, R.T., Evans, D.G. Am. J. Hum. Genet. (2004) [Pubmed]
  5. Pathophysiology of blepharospasm and oromandibular dystonia. Berardelli, A., Rothwell, J.C., Day, B.L., Marsden, C.D. Brain (1985) [Pubmed]
  6. Origin of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone neurons. Schwanzel-Fukuda, M., Pfaff, D.W. Nature (1989) [Pubmed]
  7. Expression in brain of a messenger RNA encoding a novel neuropeptide homologous to calcitonin gene-related peptide. Amara, S.G., Arriza, J.L., Leff, S.E., Swanson, L.W., Evans, R.M., Rosenfeld, M.G. Science (1985) [Pubmed]
  8. Hoxb1 functions in both motoneurons and in tissues of the periphery to establish and maintain the proper neuronal circuitry. Arenkiel, B.R., Tvrdik, P., Gaufo, G.O., Capecchi, M.R. Genes Dev. (2004) [Pubmed]
  9. Differential distribution of AT1 and AT2 angiotensin II receptor subtypes in the rat brain during development. Millan, M.A., Jacobowitz, D.M., Aguilera, G., Catt, K.J. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (1991) [Pubmed]
  10. Loss of the Sall3 gene leads to palate deficiency, abnormalities in cranial nerves, and perinatal lethality. Parrish, M., Ott, T., Lance-Jones, C., Schuetz, G., Schwaeger-Nickolenko, A., Monaghan, A.P. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  11. Fibrosing pseudotumor of the sella and parasellar area producing hypopituitarism and multiple cranial nerve palsies. Olmos, P.R., Falko, J.M., Rea, G.L., Boesel, C.P., Chakeres, D.W., McGhee, D.B. Neurosurgery (1993) [Pubmed]
  12. Ifosfamide in pediatric malignant solid tumors. Pratt, C.B., Douglass, E.C., Etcubanas, E.L., Goren, M.P., Green, A.A., Hayes, F.A., Horowitz, M.E., Meyer, W.H., Thompson, E.I., Wilimas, J.A. Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol. (1989) [Pubmed]
  13. Arterial encasement and cranial nerve displacement in a case of cholesterol granuloma of the petrous apex. Hardjasudarma, M., Parker, K.R., McClellan, R.L., Milner, J.W. AJR. American journal of roentgenology. (1996) [Pubmed]
  14. Intermediate syndrome due to prolonged parathion poisoning. De Bleecker, J., Vogelaers, D., Ceuterick, C., Van Den Neucker, K., Willems, J., De Reuck, J. Acta neurologica Scandinavica. (1992) [Pubmed]
  15. Encephalopathy and cranial nerve palsies caused by intentional trichloroethylene inhalation. Szlatenyi, C.S., Wang, R.Y. The American journal of emergency medicine. (1996) [Pubmed]
  16. Androgen receptor levels in cranial nerve nuclei and tongue muscles in rats. Yu, W.H., McGinnis, M.Y. J. Neurosci. (1986) [Pubmed]
  17. Vascular permeability and neurotoxicity. Jacobs, J.M. Environ. Health Perspect. (1978) [Pubmed]
  18. Androgen receptors in cranial nerve motor nuclei of male and female rats. Yu, W.H., McGinnis, M.Y. J. Neurobiol. (2001) [Pubmed]
  19. Sclerosteosis - an autosomal recessive disorder. Beighton, P., Davidson, J., Durr, L., Hamersma, H. Clin. Genet. (1977) [Pubmed]
  20. Tbx1 mutation causes multiple cardiovascular defects and disrupts neural crest and cranial nerve migratory pathways. Vitelli, F., Morishima, M., Taddei, I., Lindsay, E.A., Baldini, A. Hum. Mol. Genet. (2002) [Pubmed]
  21. Expression of nerve growth factor receptor mRNA during early development of the chicken embryo: emphasis on cranial ganglia. Hallböök, F., Ayer-Lelièvre, C., Ebendal, T., Persson, H. Development (1990) [Pubmed]
  22. Knockdown of duplicated zebrafish hoxb1 genes reveals distinct roles in hindbrain patterning and a novel mechanism of duplicate gene retention. McClintock, J.M., Kheirbek, M.A., Prince, V.E. Development (2002) [Pubmed]
  23. Hoxa1 and Hoxb1 synergize in patterning the hindbrain, cranial nerves and second pharyngeal arch. Gavalas, A., Studer, M., Lumsden, A., Rijli, F.M., Krumlauf, R., Chambon, P. Development (1998) [Pubmed]
  24. Expression and interactions of the two closely related homeobox genes Phox2a and Phox2b during neurogenesis. Pattyn, A., Morin, X., Cremer, H., Goridis, C., Brunet, J.F. Development (1997) [Pubmed]
  25. Vestibular dysfunction in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Frohman, E.M., Tusa, R., Mark, A.S., Cornblath, D.R. Ann. Neurol. (1996) [Pubmed]
  26. Cranial nerve deficit: a clue to the diagnosis of ethylene glycol poisoning. Palmer, B.F., Eigenbrodt, E.H., Henrich, W.L. Am. J. Med. (1989) [Pubmed]
  27. Possible role of androgen receptors in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A hypothesis. Weiner, L.P. Arch. Neurol. (1980) [Pubmed]
  28. Vasodepressor effects obtained by drugs acting on the ventral surface of the brain stem. Feldberg, W., Guertzenstein, P.G. J. Physiol. (Lond.) (1976) [Pubmed]
  29. Nutritional sensory neuronopathy. An emerging new syndrome. May, W.E. Arch. Neurol. (1984) [Pubmed]
  30. Defective neural tube closure and anteroposterior patterning in mice lacking the LIM protein LMO4 or its interacting partner Deaf-1. Hahm, K., Sum, E.Y., Fujiwara, Y., Lindeman, G.J., Visvader, J.E., Orkin, S.H. Mol. Cell. Biol. (2004) [Pubmed]
  31. Cranial nerve involvement in CMT disease type 1 due to early growth response 2 gene mutation. Pareyson, D., Taroni, F., Botti, S., Morbin, M., Baratta, S., Lauria, G., Ciano, C., Sghirlanzoni, A. Neurology (2000) [Pubmed]
  32. Characterization of myelination in the developing zebrafish. Brösamle, C., Halpern, M.E. Glia (2002) [Pubmed]
  33. Development of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 immunoreactivity in the lower auditory brainstem of the postnatal gerbil. Tierney, T.S., P Doubell, T., Xia, G., Moore, D.R. Eur. J. Neurosci. (2001) [Pubmed]
  34. Nasopharyngeal carcinoma with cranial nerve palsy: the importance of MRI for radiotherapy. Chang, J.T., Lin, C.Y., Chen, T.M., Kang, C.J., Ng, S.H., Chen, I.H., Wang, H.M., Cheng, A.J., Liao, C.T. Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. (2005) [Pubmed]
  35. Choline acetyltransferase immunoreactive neurons innervating labyrinthine and lateral line sense organs in amphibians. González, A., Meredith, G.E., Roberts, B.L. J. Comp. Neurol. (1993) [Pubmed]
  36. Pre-inspiratory burst in the caudal medulla of rabbits. Homma, I., Iwase, M., Kanamaru, A., Sibuya, M. Neurosci. Lett. (1990) [Pubmed]
  37. Syringomyelia presenting as cricopharyngeal pseudostricture. Malik, M.I., Schwarz, K.B., Kotagal, S. J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. (1990) [Pubmed]
  38. Immunohistochemical determination of the sympathetic pathway in the orbit via the cranial nerves in humans. Oikawa, S., Kawagishi, K., Yokouchi, K., Fukushima, N., Moriizumi, T. J. Neurosurg. (2004) [Pubmed]
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