The world's first wiki where authorship really matters (Nature Genetics, 2008). Due credit and reputation for authors. Imagine a global collaborative knowledge base for original thoughts. Search thousands of articles and collaborate with scientists around the globe.

wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary knowledge reputation system wiki2.0 global collaboration genes proteins drugs chemicals diseases compound
Hoffmann, R. A wiki for the life sciences where authorship matters. Nature Genetics (2008)

Roles of URE2 and GLN3 in the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

The yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae can use alternative nitrogen sources such as arginine, urea, allantoin, gamma-aminobutyrate, or proline when preferred nitrogen sources like glutamine, asparagine, or ammonium ions are unavailable in the environment. Utilization of alternative nitrogen sources requires the relief of nitrogen repression and induction of specific permeases and enzymes. The products of the GLN3 and URE2 genes are required for the appropriate transcription of many genes in alternative nitrogen assimilatory pathways. GLN3 appears to activate their transcription when good nitrogen sources are unavailable, and URE2 appears to repress their transcription when alternative nitrogen sources are not needed. The participation of nitrogen repression and the regulators GLN3 and URE2 in the proline utilization pathway was evaluated in this study. Comparison of PUT gene expression in cells grown in repressing or derepressing nitrogen sources, in the absence of the inducer proline, indicated that both PUT1 and PUT2 are regulated by nitrogen repression, although the effect on PUT2 is comparatively small. Recessive mutations in URE2 elevated expression of the PUT1 and PUT2 genes 5- to 10-fold when cells were grown on a nitrogen-repressing medium. Although PUT3, the proline utilization pathway transcriptional activator, is absolutely required for growth on proline as the sole nitrogen source, a put3 ure2 strain had somewhat elevated PUT gene expression, suggesting an effect of the ure2 mutation in the absence of the PUT3 product. PUT1 and PUT2 gene expression did not require the GLN3 activator protein for expression under either repressing or derepressing conditions. Therefore, regulation of the PUT genes by URE2 does not require a functional GLN3 protein. The effect of the ure2 mutation on the PUT genes is not due to increased internal proline levels. URE2 repression appears to be limited to nitrogen assimilatory systems and does not affect genes involved in carbon, inositol, or phosphate metabolism or in mating-type control and sporulation.[1]


  1. Roles of URE2 and GLN3 in the proline utilization pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Xu, S., Falvey, D.A., Brandriss, M.C. Mol. Cell. Biol. (1995) [Pubmed]
WikiGenes - Universities